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Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer

Book Description

Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer is written as a text book for senior undergraduates in engineering colleges of Indian universities, in the departments of Mechanical, Automobile, Production, Chemical, Nuclear and Aerospace Engineering. The book should also be useful as a reference book for practising engineers for whom thermal calculations and understanding of heat transfer are necessary, for example, in the areas of Thermal Engineering, Metallurgy, Refrigeration and Airconditioning, Insulation etc.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. About the Author
  6. Dedication
  7. Preface
  8. About Mathcad®
  9. Nomenclature
  10. Chapter 1. Introduction and Basic Concepts
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer
    3. 1.3 Applications of Heat Transfer
    4. 1.4 Fundamental Laws of Heat Transfer
    5. 1.5 Analogies with Other Transport Processes
    6. 1.6 Modes of Heat Transfer
      1. 1.6.1 Conduction
      2. 1.6.2 Convection
      3. 1.6.3 Radiation
      4. 1.6.4 Combined Heat Transfer Mechanism
    7. 1.7 Steady and Unsteady Heat Transfer
    8. 1.8 Heat Transfer in Boiling and Condensation
    9. 1.9 Mass Transfer
    10. 1.10 Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  11. Chapter 2. Fourier’s Law and Its Consequences
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
    3. 2.3 Thermal Conductivity of Materials
      1. 2.3.1 Thermal Conductivity of Solids
      2. 2.3.2 Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
      3. 2.3.3 Thermal Conductivity of Gases
      4. 2.3.4 Insulation Systems
    4. 2.4 Concept of Thermal Resistance
      1. 2.4.1 Conduction
      2. 2.4.2 Convection
      3. 2.4.3 Radiation
      4. 2.4.4 Practical Applications of Thermal Resistance Concept
      5. 2.4.5 Limitations for the Use of Thermal Resistance Concept
    5. 2.5 Thermal Diffusivity (a)
    6. 2.6 Summary
    7. Questions
  12. Chapter 3. General Differential Equations for Heat Conduction
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 General Differential Equation for Heat Conduction in Cartesian Coordinates
    3. 3.3 General Differential Equation for Heat Conduction in Cylindrical Coordinates
    4. 3.4 General Differential Equation for Heat Conduction in Spherical Coordinates
    5. 3.5 Boundary and Initial Conditions
      1. 3.5.1 Prescribed Temperatures at the Boundaries (B.C. of the First Kind)
      2. 3.5.2 Prescribed Heat Flux at the Boundaries (B.C. of the Second Kind)
      3. 3.5.3 Convection Boundary Condition (B.C. of the Third Kind)
      4. 3.5.4 Interface Boundary Condition (B.C. of the Fourth Kind)
    6. 3.6 Summary of Basic Equations
    7. 3.7 Summary
    8. Questions
    9. Problems
  13. Chapter 4. One-dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Plane Slab
    3. 4.3 Heat Transfer through Composite Slabs
    4. 4.4 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/(m2C))
    5. 4.5 Thermal Contact Resistance
    6. 4.6 Conduction with Variable Area
    7. 4.7 Cylindrical Systems
    8. 4.8 Composite Cylinders
    9. 4.9 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for the Cylindrical System
    10. 4.10 Spherical Systems
    11. 4.11 Composite Spheres
    12. 4.12 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for the Spherical System
    13. 4.13 Critical Thickness of Insulation
    14. 4.14 Optimum (or Economic) Thickness of Insulation
    15. 4.15 Effect of Variable Thermal Conductivity
      1. 4.15.1 Plane Slab with Variable Thermal Conductivity
      2. 4.15.2 Hollow Cylinder with Variable Thermal Conductivity
      3. 4.15.3 Hollow Sphere with Variable Thermal Conductivity
    16. 4.16 Two-dimensional Conduction—Shape Factor
    17. 4.17 Summary of Basic Conduction Relations
    18. 4.18 Summary
    19. Questions
    20. Problems
  14. Chapter 5. One-dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction with Heat Generation
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Plane Slab with Uniform Internal Heat Generation
      1. 5.2.1 Plane Slab with Uniform Internal Heat Generation— Both the Sides at the Same Temperature
      2. 5.2.2 Plane Slab with Uniform Internal Heat Generation— Two Sides at Different Temperatures
      3. 5.2.3 Plane Slab with Uniform Internal Heat Generation— One Face Perfectly Insulated
    3. 5.3 Cylinder with Uniform Internal Heat Generation
      1. 5.3.1 Solid Cylinder with Internal Heat Generation
      2. 5.3.2 Hollow Cylinder with Heat Generation
    4. 5.4 Sphere with Uniform Internal Heat Generation
      1. 5.4.1 Solid Sphere with Internal Heat Generation
      2. 5.4.2 Alternative Analysis
      3. 5.4.3 Analysis with Variable Thermal Conductivity
    5. 5.5 Applications
      1. 5.5.1 Dielectric Heating
      2. 5.5.2 Heat Transfer through a Piston Crown
      3. 5.5.3 Heat Transfer in Nuclear Fuel Rod (without cladding)
      4. 5.5.4 Heat Transfer in Nuclear Fuel Rod with Cladding
    6. 5.6 Summary of Basic Conduction Relations, with Heat Generation
    7. 5.7 Summary
    8. Questions
    9. Problems
  15. Chapter 6. Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces (FINS)
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Fins of Uniform Cross Section (Rectangular or Circular)— Governing Differential Equation
      1. 6.2.1 Infinitely Long Fin
      2. 6.2.2 Fin of Finite Length with Insulated End
      3. 6.2.3 Fin of Finite Length Losing Heat from Its End by Convection
      4. 6.2.4 Fin of Finite Length with Specified Temperature at Its End
      5. 6.2.5 Summary of Fin Formulae
    3. 6.3 Fins of Non-uniform Cross section
    4. 6.4 Performance of Fins
      1. 6.4.1 Fin Efficiency
      2. 6.4.2 Fin Effectiveness (εf)
      3. 6.4.3 Thermal Resistance of a Fin
      4. 6.4.4 Total Surface Efficiency (or, Overall Surface Efficiency, or Area-weighted Fin Efficiency), ηt
      5. 6.5 Application of Fin Theory for Error Estimation in Temperature Measurement
    5. 6.6 Summary
    6. Questions
    7. Problems
  16. Chapter 7. Transient Heat Conduction
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Lumped System Analysis (Newtonian Heating or Cooling)
    3. 7.3 Criteria for Lumped System Analysis (Biot Number and Fourier Number)
    4. 7.4 Response Time of a Thermocouple
    5. 7.5 Mixed Boundary Condition
    6. 7.6 One-dimensional Transient Conduction in Large Plane Walls, Long Cylinders and Spheres when Biot Number > 0.1
      1. 7.6.1 One Term Approximation Solutions
      2. 7.6.2 Heisler and Grober Charts
    7. 7.7 One-dimensional Transient Conduction in Semi-infinite Solids
    8. 7.8 Transient Heat Conduction in Multi-dimensional Systems—Product Solution
      1. 7.8.1 Temperature Distribution in Transient Conduction in Multi-dimensional Systems
      2. 7.8.2 Heat Transfer in Transient Conduction in Multi-dimensional Systems
    9. 7.9 Summary of Basic Equations
    10. 7.10 Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Appendix
  17. Chapter 8. Numerical Methods in Heat Conduction
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Finite Difference Formulation from Differential Equations
    3. 8.3 One-dimensional, Steady State Heat Conduction in Cartesian Coordinates
    4. 8.4 Methods of Solving a System of Simultaneous, Algebraic Equations
    5. 8.5 One-dimensional, Steady State Conduction in Cylindrical Systems
    6. 8.6 One-dimensional, Steady State Conduction in Spherical Systems
    7. 8.7 Two-dimensional, Steady State Conduction in Cartesian Coordinates
    8. 8.8 Numerical Methods for Transient Heat Conduction
      1. 8.8.1 One-dimensional Transient Heat Conduction in a Plane Wall
      2. 8.8.2 Two-dimensional Transient Heat Conduction
    9. 8.9 Accuracy Considerations
    10. 8.10 Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
  18. Chapter 9. Forced Convection
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Physical Mechanism of Forced Convection
    3. 9.3 Newton’s Law of Cooling and Heat Transfer Coefficient
    4. 9.4 Nusselt Number
    5. 9.5 Velocity Boundary Layer
    6. 9.6 Thermal Boundary Layer
    7. 9.7 Differential Equations for the Boundary Layer
      1. 9.7.1 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation for The Boundary Layer
      2. 9.7.2 Conservation of Momentum Equation for The Boundary Layer
      3. 9.7.3 Conservation of Energy Equation for The Boundary Layer
    8. 9.8 Methods to Determine Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
      1. 9.8.1 Dimensional Analysis
      2. 9.8.2 Exact Solutions of Boundary Layer Equations
      3. 9.8.3 Approximate Solutions of Boundary Layer Equations— Von Karman Integral Equations
      4. 9.8.4 Analogy Between Momentum and Heat Transfer
    9. 9.9 Flow Across Cylinders, Spheres and Other Bluff Shapes and Packed Beds
      1. 9.9.1 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres
      2. 9.9.2 Flow Across Bluff Objects
      3. 9.9.3 Flow Through Packed Beds
      4. 9.9.4 Flow Across a Bank of Tubes
    10. 9.10 Flow Inside Tubes
      1. 9.10.1 Hydrodynamic and Thermal Boundary Layers for Flow in a Tube
      2. 9.10.2 Velocity Profile for Fully Developed, Steady, Laminar Flow
      3. 9.10.3 Heat Transfer Considerations in a Pipe
      4. 9.10.4 Fully Developed Laminar Flow Inside Pipes of Non-circular Cross-sections
      5. 9.10.5 Turbulent Flow Inside Pipes
    11. 9.11 Summary of Basic Equations for Forced Convection
    12. 9.12 Summary
    13. Questions
    14. Problems
  19. Chapter 10. Natural (or Free) Convection
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Physical Mechanism of Natural Convection
    3. 10.3 Dimensional Analysis of Natural Convection—Grashoff Number
    4. 10.4 Governing Equations and Solution by Integral Method
    5. 10.5 Empirical Relations For Natural Convection Over Surfaces and Enclosures
      1. 10.5.1 Vertical Plate at Constant Temperature, Ts
      2. 10.5.2 Vertical Cylinders at Constant Temperature, Ts
      3. 10.5.3 Vertical Plate with Constant Heat Flux
      4. 10.5.4 Horizontal Plate at Constant Temperature, Ts
      5. 10.5.5 Horizontal Plate with Constant Heat Flux
      6. 10.5.6 Horizontal Cylinder at Constant Temperature
      7. 10.5.7 Free Convection from Spheres
      8. 10.5.8 Free Convection from Rectangular Blocks and Short Cylinders
      9. 10.5.9 Simplified Equations for Air
      10. 10.5.10 Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces
      11. 10.5.11 Free Convection in Inclined Spaces
      12. 10.5.12 Natural Convection Inside Spherical Cavities
      13. 10.5.13 Natural Convection Inside Concentric Cylinders and Spheres
      14. 10.5.14 Natural Convection in Turbine Rotors, Rotating Cylinders, Disks and Spheres
      15. 10.5.15 Natural Convection from Finned Surfaces
    6. 10.6 Comprehensive Correlations from Russian Literature
    7. 10.7 Combined Natural and Forced Convection
    8. 10.7 Summary of Basic Equations for Natural Convection
    9. 10.8 Summary
    10. Questions
    11. Problems
  20. Chapter 11. Boiling and Condensation
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation
    3. 11.3 Boiling Heat Transfer
      1. 11.3.1 Boiling and Evaporation
      2. 11.3.2 Boiling Modes
      3. 11.3.3 Origin and Growth of Bubbles
      4. 11.3.4 Boiling Regimes and Boiling Curve
      5. 11.3.5 Burnout Phenomenon
      6. 11.3.6 Heat Transfer Correlations for Pool Boiling
      7. 11.3.7 Simplified Correlations for Boiling with Water
      8. 11.3.8 Flow Boiling
    4. 11.4 Condensation Heat Transfer
      1. 11.4.1 Introduction
      2. 11.4.2 Film Condensation and Flow Regimes
      3. 11.4.3 Nusselt’s Theory for Laminar Film Condensation on Vertical Plates
      4. 11.4.4 Film Condensation on Inclined Plates, Vertical Tubes, Horizontal Tubes and Spheres, and Horizontal Tube Banks
      5. 11.4.5 Effect of Vapour Velocity, Nature of Condensing Surface and Non-condensable Gases
      6. 11.4.6 Simplified Calculations for Water
      7. 11.4.7 Film Condensation inside Horizontal Tubes
      8. 11.4.8 Drop-wise Condensation
    5. 11.5 Summary
    6. Questions
    7. Problems
  21. Chapter 12. Heat Exchangers
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Types of Heat Exchangers
    3. 12.3 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
    4. 12.4 The LMTD Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis
      1. 12.4.1 Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
      2. 12.4.2 Counter-flow Heat Exchanger
    5. 12.5 Correction Factors for Multi-pass and Cross-flow Heat Exchangers
    6. 12.6 The Effectiveness-NTU Method for Heat Exchanger Analysis
      1. 12.6.1 Effectiveness-NTU Relation for a Parallel-flow Heat Exchanger
      2. 12.6.2 Effectiveness-NTU Relation for a Counter-flow Heat Exchanger
    7. 12.7 The Operating-line/Equilibrium-line Method
    8. 12.8 Compact Heat Exchangers
    9. 12.9 Hydro-mechanical Design of Heat Exchangers
    10. 12.10 Summary
    11. Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Appendix
  22. Chapter 13. Radiation
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Properties and Definitions
    3. 13.3 Laws of Black Body Radiation
      1. 13.3.1 Planck’s Law for Spectral Distribution
      2. 13.3.2 Wein’s Displacement Law
      3. 13.3.3 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
      4. 13.3.4 Radiation from a Wave Band
      5. 13.3.5 Relation between Radiation Intensity and Emissive Power
      6. 13.3.6 Emissivity, Real Surface and Grey Surface
      7. 13.3.7 Kirchhoff’s Law
    4. 13.4 The View Factor and Radiation Energy Exchange between Black Bodies
    5. 13.5 Properties of View Factor and View Factor Algebra
    6. 13.6 Methods of Determining View Factors
      1. 13.6.1 By Direct Integration
      2. 13.6.2 By Analytical Formulas and Graphs
      3. 13.6.3 By Use of View Factor Algebra
      4. 13.6.4 By Graphical Techniques
    7. 13.7 Radiation Heat Exchange between Grey Surfaces
      1. 13.7.1 Radiation Exchange between Small, Grey Surfaces
      2. 13.7.2 The Electrical Network Method
      3. 13.7.3 Radiation Heat Exchange in Two-zone Enclosures
      4. 13.7.4 Radiation Heat Exchange in Three-zone Enclosures
      5. 13.7.5 Radiation Heat Exchange in Four-zone Enclosures
    8. 13.8 Radiation Shielding
    9. 13.9 Radiation Error in Temperature Measurement
    10. 13.10 Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient (hr)
    11. 13.11 Radiation from Gases, Vapours and Flames
      1. 13.11.1 Volumetric Absorption and Emissivity
      2. 13.11.2 Gaseous Emission and Absorption
    12. 13.12 Solar and Atmospheric Radiation
    13. 13.13 Summary
    14. Questions
    15. Problems
  23. Chapter 14. Mass Transfer
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Concentrations, Velocities and Fluxes
      1. 14.2.1 Concentrations
      2. 14.2.2 Velocities
      3. 14.2.3 Fluxes
    3. 14.3 Fick’s Law of Diffusion
    4. 14.4 General Differential Equation for Diffusion in Stationary Media
    5. 14.5 Steady State Diffusion in Common Geometries
      1. 14.5.1 Steady State Diffusion Through a Plain Membrane
      2. 14.5.2 Steady State Diffusion through a Cylindrical Shell
      3. 14.5.3 Steady State Diffusion through a Spherical Shell
    6. 14.6 Equimolal Counter-diffusion in Gases
    7. 14.7 Steady State Uni-directional Diffusion—Diffusion of Water Vapour through Air
    8. 14.8 Steady-state Diffusion in Liquids
      1. 14.8.1 Steady-state Equimolal Counter-diffusion in Liquids
      2. 14.8.2 Steady-state Uni-directional Diffusion in Liquids
    9. 14.9 Transient Mass Diffusion in Semi-infinite, Stationary Medium
    10. 14.10 Transient Mass Diffusion in Common Geometries
    11. 14.11 Mass Transfer Coefficient
    12. 14.12 Convective Mass Transfer
    13. 14.13 Reynolds and Colburn Analogies for Mass Transfer
    14. 14.14 Summary
    15. Questions
    16. Problems
  24. Appendix
  25. Bibliography
  26. Copyright