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Fundamentals of Engineering Plasticity by William F.,Hosford

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12 Effects of Strain Hardening and Strain-Rate Dependence

The terms strain hardening and work hardening are used interchangeably to describe the increase of the stress level necessary for continued plastic deformation. The term flow stress is used to describe the stress necessary to continue deformation at any stage of plastic strain. Prediction of the energy absorption in automobile crashes and the stresses around cracks require mathematical descriptions of true stress-strain curves. They are also required in design of dies for stamping parts. Various approximations are possible. Which approximation is best depends on the material, the nature of the problem, and the need for accuracy.

Mathematical Approximations

The simplest model is ideal plasticity ...

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