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Fundamentals of Electro-Optic Systems Design

Book Description

Using fundamentals of communication theory, thermodynamics, information theory and propagation theory, this book explains the universal principles underlying a diverse range of electro-optical systems. From fiber optics and infra-red imaging to free space communications and laser remote sensing, the authors relate key concepts in science and device engineering to practical systems issues. A broad spectrum of coherent and incoherent imaging and communications systems is considered, accompanied by many real-world examples. The authors also present new insights into LIDAR and free space communications and imaging, providing practical guidance on identifying the fundamental limitations of transmission and imaging through deleterious channels. Accompanied by online examples of processed images and videos, this uniquely tailored guide to the fundamental principles underlying modern electro-optical systems is an essential reference for all practising engineers and academic researchers in optical engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Fundamentals of Electro-Optic Systems Design
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Notation
  9. 1 Genesis of electro-optic systems
    1. 1.1 Energy
    2. 1.2 The range equation
    3. 1.3 Characterization of noise
    4. 1.4 Black-body radiation
    5. 1.5 Entropy
    6. 1.6 Summary
  10. 2 Role of electromagnetic theory in electro-optics systems
    1. 2.1 Kirchhoff diffraction theory
    2. 2.2 The Fresnel approximation
    3. 2.3 The Fraunhofer approximation
    4. 2.4 The mutual coherence function
    5. 2.5 Linear transmission channels
    6. 2.6 Thin lens receiver optics
    7. 2.7 Geometrical analysis for diffuse illumination into an optical imaging system
    8. 2.8 Summary
  11. 3 Photo-detection of electromagnetic radiation
    1. 3.1 The photo-detector
    2. 3.2 Shot noise processes
    3. 3.3 Power spectral density of shot noise
    4. 3.4 A general solution to the counting distribution
    5. 3.5 Coherence separability
    6. 3.6 Summary
  12. 4 Metrics for evaluating photo-detected radiation
    1. 4.1 Reflective background noise
    2. 4.2 Black-body (thermal) sources
    3. 4.3 Mist, haze and fog
    4. 4.4 Signal-to-noise ratio
    5. 4.5 Signal plus additive background noise
    6. 4.6 Signal-to-noise ratio for digital systems
    7. 4.7 Signal-to-noise ratio of an image
    8. 4.8 Summary
  13. 5 Contrast, visibility and imaging
    1. 5.1 Background
    2. 5.2 Mie scattering
    3. 5.3 Radiative transport and imaging
    4. 5.4 Information content of images
    5. 5.5 Target attenuation
    6. 5.6 Additive background noise – reflective background
    7. 5.7 Additive background noise – emissive background
    8. 5.8 Measured data
    9. 5.9 Other applications
    10. 5.10 Spatial filtering
    11. 5.11 Summary
  14. 6 Signal modulation schemes in optical communications
    1. 6.1 Spectral efficiency
    2. 6.2 Conventional communications receivers
    3. 6.3 Modern system design considerations
  15. 7 Forward error correction coding
    1. 7.1 Motivation – real-world binary symmetric channel performance
    2. 7.2 Block codes
    3. 7.3 Block coding techniques
    4. 7.4 Reed-Solomon coding
    5. 7.5 Other important FEC schemes
  16. 8 Modern communications designs for FOC/FSOC applications
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Modern signal modulation schemes
    3. 8.3 Importance of receiver sensitivity to communications performance
  17. 9 Light detection and ranging
    1. 9.1 General lidar ranging
    2. 9.2 Single scattering (backscatter) applications
    3. 9.3 Ranging in a multiple scattering environment
    4. 9.4 Ranging in water
    5. 9.5 Pulsed imaging
    6. 9.6 Geo-location
    7. 9.7 Summary
  18. 10 Communications in the turbulence channel
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Degradation from atmospheric absorption and scattering
    3. 10.3 Atmospheric turbulence and its characterization
    4. 10.4 The point spread function created by atmospheric turbulence and other important entities
    5. 10.5 Adaptive optics
    6. 10.6 The ORCA/FOENEX scintillation mitigation model
    7. 10.7 Diversity scintillation mitigation techniques
    8. 10.8 An optical modem model
    9. 10.9 Coherent optical communications
    10. 10.10 Pointing, acquisition and tracking
  19. 11 Communications in the optical scatter channel
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Optical scatter channel models
    3. 11.3 Analytical models and relationships for optical propagation in the ocean
    4. 11.4. System design models for the optical scatter channel
    5. 11.5 Over the horizon optical communications
  20. A Two-dimensional Poisson processes
  21. B Propagation of finite beams in water
  22. C Non-Lambertian scattering
  23. D Communications noise sources besides signal/background shot noise
  24. Index