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Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

Book Description

The Clear, Well-Organized Introduction to Thermodynamics Theory and Calculations for All Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Students

This text is designed to make thermodynamics far easier for undergraduate chemical engineering students to learn, and to help them perform thermodynamic calculations with confidence. Drawing on his award-winning courses at Penn State, Dr. Themis Matsoukas focuses on “why” as well as “how.” He offers extensive imagery to help students conceptualize the equations, illuminating thermodynamics with more than 100 figures, as well as 190 examples from within and beyond chemical engineering.

Part I clearly introduces the laws of thermodynamics with applications to pure fluids. Part II extends thermodynamics to mixtures, emphasizing phase and chemical equilibrium. Throughout, Matsoukas focuses on topics that link tightly to other key areas of undergraduate chemical engineering, including separations, reactions, and capstone design. More than 300 end-of-chapter problems range from basic calculations to realistic environmental applications; these can be solved with any leading mathematical software.

Coverage includes

• Pure fluids, PVT behavior, and basic calculations of enthalpy and entropy

• Fundamental relationships and the calculation of properties from equations of state

• Thermodynamic analysis of chemical processes

• Phase diagrams of binary and simple ternary systems

• Thermodynamics of mixtures using equations of state

• Ideal and nonideal solutions

• Partial miscibility, solubility of gases and solids, osmotic processes

• Reaction equilibrium with applications to single and multiphase reactions

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Dedication Page
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. About the Author
  8. Nomenclature
  9. Part I. Pure Fluids
    1. Chapter 1. Scope and Language of Thermodynamics
      1. 1.1 Molecular Basis of Thermodynamics
      2. 1.2 Statistical versus Classical Thermodynamics
      3. 1.3 Definitions
      4. 1.4 Units
      5. 1.5 Summary
      6. 1.6 Problems
    2. Chapter 2. Phase Diagrams of Pure Fluids
      1. 2.1 The PVT Behavior of Pure Fluid
      2. 2.2 Tabulation of Properties
      3. 2.3 Compressibility Factor and the ZP Graph
      4. 2.4 Corresponding States
      5. 2.5 Virial Equation
      6. 2.6 Cubic Equations of State
      7. 2.7 PVT Behavior of Cubic Equations of State
      8. 2.8 Working with Cubic Equations
      9. 2.9 Other Equations of State
      10. 2.10 Thermal Expansion and Isothermal Compression
      11. 2.11 Empirical Equations for Density
      12. 2.12 Summary
      13. 2.13 Problems
    3. Chapter 3. Energy and the First Law
      1. 3.1 Energy and Mechanical Work
      2. 3.2 Shaft Work and PV Work
      3. 3.3 Internal Energy and Heat
      4. 3.4 First Law for a Closed System
      5. 3.5 Elementary Paths
      6. 3.6 Sensible Heat—Heat Capacities
      7. 3.7 Heat of Vaporization
      8. 3.8 Ideal-Gas State
      9. 3.9 Energy Balances and Irreversible Processes
      10. 3.10 Summary
      11. 3.11 Problems
    4. Chapter 4. Entropy and the Second Law
      1. 4.1 The Second Law in a Closed System
      2. 4.2 Calculation of Entropy
      3. 4.3 Energy Balances Using Entropy
      4. 4.4 Entropy Generation
      5. 4.5 Carnot Cycle
      6. 4.6 Alternative Statements of the Second Law
      7. 4.7 Ideal and Lost Work
      8. 4.8 Ambient Surroundings as a Default Bath—Exergy
      9. 4.9 Equilibrium and Stability
      10. 4.10 Molecular View of Entropy
      11. 4.11 Summary
      12. 4.12 Problems
    5. Chapter 5. Calculation of Properties
      1. 5.1 Calculus of Thermodynamics
      2. 5.2 Integration of Differentials
      3. 5.3 Fundamental Relationships
      4. 5.4 Equations for Enthalpy and Entropy
      5. 5.5 Ideal-Gas State
      6. 5.6 Incompressible Phases
      7. 5.7 Residual Properties
      8. 5.8 Pressure-Explicit Relations
      9. 5.9 Application to Cubic Equations
      10. 5.10 Generalized Correlations
      11. 5.11 Reference States
      12. 5.12 Thermodynamic Charts
      13. 5.13 Summary
      14. 5.14 Problems
    6. Chapter 6. Balances in Open Systems
      1. 6.1 Flow Streams
      2. 6.2 Mass Balance
      3. 6.3 Energy Balance in Open System
      4. 6.4 Entropy Balance
      5. 6.5 Ideal and Lost Work
      6. 6.6 Thermodynamics of Steady-State Processes
      7. 6.7 Power Generation
      8. 6.8 Refrigeration
      9. 6.9 Liquefaction
      10. 6.10 Unsteady-State Balances
      11. 6.11 Summary
      12. 6.12 Problems
    7. Chapter 7. VLE of Pure Fluid
      1. 7.1 Two-Phase Systems
      2. 7.2 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
      3. 7.3 Fugacity
      4. 7.4 Calculation of Fugacity
      5. 7.5 Saturation Pressure from Equations of State
      6. 7.6 Phase Diagrams from Equations of State
      7. 7.7 Summary
      8. 7.8 Problems
  10. Part II. Mixtures
    1. Chapter 8. Phase Behavior of Mixtures
      1. 8.1 The Txy Graph
      2. 8.2 The Pxy Graph
      3. 8.3 Azeotropes
      4. 8.4 The xy Graph
      5. 8.5 VLE at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures
      6. 8.6 Partially Miscible Liquids
      7. 8.7 Ternary Systems
      8. 8.8 Summary
      9. 8.9 Problems
    2. Chapter 9. Properties of Mixtures
      1. 9.1 Composition
      2. 9.2 Mathematical Treatment of Mixtures
      3. 9.3 Properties of Mixing
      4. 9.4 Mixing and Separation
      5. 9.5 Mixtures in the Ideal-Gas State
      6. 9.6 Equations of State for Mixtures
      7. 9.7 Mixture Properties from Equations of State
      8. 9.8 Summary
      9. 9.9 Problems
    3. Chapter 10. Theory of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
      1. 10.1 Gibbs Free Energy of Mixture
      2. 10.2 Chemical Potential
      3. 10.3 Fugacity in a Mixture
      4. 10.4 Fugacity from Equations of State
      5. 10.5 VLE of Mixture Using Equations of State
      6. 10.6 Summary
      7. 10.7 Problems
    4. Chapter 11. Ideal Solution
      1. 11.1 Ideality in Solution
      2. 11.2 Fugacity in Ideal Solution
      3. 11.3 VLE in Ideal Solution–Raoult’s Law
      4. 11.4 Energy Balances
      5. 11.5 Noncondensable Gases
      6. 11.6 Summary
      7. 11.7 Problems
    5. Chapter 12. Nonideal Solutions
      1. 12.1 Excess Properties
      2. 12.2 Heat Effects of Mixing
      3. 12.3 Activity Coefficient
      4. 12.4 Activity Coefficient and Phase Equilibrium
      5. 12.5 Data Reduction: Fitting Experimental Activity Coefficients
      6. 12.6 Models for the Activity Coefficient
      7. 12.7 Summary
      8. 12.8 Problems
    6. Chapter 13. Miscibility, Solubility, and Other Phase Equilibria
      1. 13.1 Equilibrium between Partially Miscible Liquids
      2. 13.2 Gibbs Free Energy and Phase Splitting
      3. 13.3 Liquid Miscibility and Temperature
      4. 13.4 Completely Immiscible Liquids
      5. 13.5 Solubility of Gases in Liquids
      6. 13.6 Solubility of Solids in Liquids
      7. 13.7 Osmotic Equilibrium
      8. 13.8 Summary
      9. 13.9 Problems
    7. Chapter 14. Reactions
      1. 14.1 Stoichiometry
      2. 14.2 Standard Enthalpy of Reaction
      3. 14.3 Energy Balances in Reacting Systems
      4. 14.4 Activity
      5. 14.5 Equilibrium Constant
      6. 14.6 Composition at Equilibrium
      7. 14.7 Reaction and Phase Equilibrium
      8. 14.8 Reaction Equilibrium Involving Solids
      9. 14.9 Multiple Reactions
      10. 14.10 Summary
      11. 14.11 Problems
  11. Bibliography
  12. Appendix A. Critical Properties of Selected Compounds
  13. Appendix B. Ideal-Gas Heat Capacities
  14. Appendix C. Standard Enthalpy and Gibbs Free Energy of Reaction
  15. Appendix D. UNIFAC Tables
  16. Appendix E. Steam Tables
  17. Index
  18. Add Pages