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Fundamentals and Applications of Micro and Nanofibers

Book Description

A comprehensive exposition of micro and nanofiber forming, this text provides a unified framework of all these processes (melt and solution blowing, electrospinning, and so on) and describes their foundations, development and applications. It provides an up-to-date, in-depth physical and mathematical treatment, and discusses a wide variety of applications in different fields, including nonwovens, energy, healthcare and the military. It further highlights the challenges and outstanding issues from an interdisciplinary perspective of science and technology, incorporating both fundamentals and applications. Ideal for researchers, engineers and graduate students interested in the formation of micro and nanofibers and their use in functional smart materials.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Half title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 History and outlook
    2. 1.2 Melt spinning
    3. 1.3 Dry spinning
    4. 1.4 Wet or solvent spinning, gel spinning
    5. 1.5 Spunbonding
    6. 1.6 References
  8. 2 Polymer physics and rheology
    1. 2.1 Polymer structure, macromolecular chains, Kuhn segment, persistence length
    2. 2.2 Elongational and shear rheometry
    3. 2.3 Rheological constitutive equations
    4. 2.4 Micromechanics of polymer solutions and melts
    5. 2.5 Solidification
    6. 2.6 Crystallization
    7. 2.7 References
  9. 3 General quasi-one-dimensional equations of dynamics of free liquid jets, capillary and bending instability
    1. 3.1 Mass, momentum and moment-of-momentum balance equations
    2. 3.2 Closure relations
    3. 3.3 Capillary instability of free liquid jets
    4. 3.4 Bending perturbations of Newtonian liquid jets moving in air with high speed
    5. 3.5 Buckling of liquid jets impinging on a wall
    6. 3.6 References
  10. 4 Melt- and solution blowing
    1. 4.1 Meltblowing process
    2. 4.2 Turbulence of surrounding gas jet
    3. 4.3 Bending and flapping of flexible solid threadlines in a gas jet
    4. 4.4 Aerodynamically driven stretching of polymer jets
    5. 4.5 Aerodynamically driven bending instability of polymer jets: linearized theory
    6. 4.6 Meltblowing of a single planar polymer jet
    7. 4.7 Fully three-dimensional blowing of single and multiple polymer jets
    8. 4.8 Subsonic and supersonic solution blowing of monolithic and core–shell fibers
    9. 4.9 Blowing of natural biopolymer fibers
    10. 4.10 References
  11. 5 Electrospinning of micro- and nanofibers
    1. 5.1 Electrospinning of polymer solutions
    2. 5.2 Leaky dielectrics
    3. 5.3 Taylor cone and jet initiation
    4. 5.4 Straight part of the jet
    5. 5.5 Electrically driven bending instability: experimental observations
    6. 5.6 Electrically driven bending instability: theory
    7. 5.7 Branching, garlands, multineedle and needleless electrospinning
    8. 5.8 Co-electrospinning and emulsion spinning of core–shell fibers
    9. 5.9 Alignment of electrospun nanofiber mats
    10. 5.10 Electrospinning of polymer melts
    11. 5.11 References
  12. 6 Additional methods and materials used to form micro- and nanofibers
    1. 6.1 Island-in-the-sea multicomponent fibers and nanofibers
    2. 6.2 Fibers from melt fracture in meltblowing processes
    3. 6.3 Fibers from flash spinning processes
    4. 6.4 Fibers from polymer solutions in Couette flow
    5. 6.5 Centrifugal spinning, forcespinning
    6. 6.6 Electrospinning of liquid crystals, conducting polymers, biopolymers and denatured proteins
    7. 6.7 Nanofibers containing nanoparticles and nanotubes
    8. 6.8 Drawing of optical microfibers
    9. 6.9 Polarization-maintaining optical microfibers and multilobal fibers
    10. 6.10 References
  13. 7 Tensile properties of micro- and nanofibers
    1. 7.1 Tensile tests on individual nanofibers
    2. 7.2 Tensile tests on nanofiber mats
    3. 7.3 Phenomenological model of stress–strain dependence of nanofiber mats
    4. 7.4 Micromechanical model of stress–strain dependence of nanofiber mats
    5. 7.5 References
  14. 8 Post-processing
    1. 8.1 Carbonization, sol-gel transformation, calcination and metallization
    2. 8.2 Chemical cross-linking
    3. 8.3 Physical cross-linking
    4. 8.4 References
  15. 9 Applications of micro- and nanofibers
    1. 9.1 Filters and membranes
    2. 9.2 Electrodes for fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors and electrochemical reactions
    3. 9.3 Thorny devil nanofibers: enhancement of spray cooling and pool boiling
    4. 9.4 Nanofluidics
    5. 9.5 References
  16. 10 Military applications of micro- and nanofibers
    1. 10.1 Nanofibers and chemical decontamination
    2. 10.2 Nanofibers for biowarfare decontamination
    3. 10.3 Functionalization of nanofibers for protective clothing applications
    4. 10.4 Sensors
    5. 10.5 Nanofiber decontamination wipes
    6. 10.6 Respirator masks
    7. 10.7 References
  17. 11 Applications of micro- and nanofibers, and micro- and nanoparticles: healthcare, nutrition, drug delivery and personal care
    1. 11.1 Nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue regeneration
    2. 11.2 Drug delivery
    3. 11.3 Desorption as a drug-delivery mechanism
    4. 11.4 Modulation of drug release rate
    5. 11.5 Health supplements (vitamin-loaded nanofiber mats)
    6. 11.6 Cosmetic facial masks
    7. 11.7 Electrosprayed nanoparticulate drug-delivery systems
    8. 11.8 References
  18. Subject Index