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Fundamental Principles of Engineering Nanometrology, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Working at the nano-scale demands an understanding of the high-precision measurement techniques that make nanotechnology and advanced manufacturing possible. This new edition of Fundamental Principles of Engineering Nanometrology provides a road map and toolkit for metrologists engaging with the rigor of measurement and data analysis at the nano-scale, from the fundamentals of precision measurement, to different measurement and characterization techniques. This book is an essential guide for the emerging nanomanufacturing and nanofabrication sectors, where measurement and standardization requirements are paramount both in product specification and quality assurance.

Updated to cover new and emerging technologies, and recent developments in standards and regulatory frameworks, this second edition includes many new sections covering, for example, new technologies in scanning probe and e-beam microscopy (including DLS, NTA), recent developments in interferometry, and advances in co-ordinate metrology.



  • Demystifies nanometrology for a wide audience of engineers, scientists, and students involved in nanotech and advanced manufacturing applications and research
  • Introduces metrologists to the specific techniques and equipment involved in measuring at the nano-scale or to nano-scale uncertainty
  • Fully updated to cover the latest technological developments, standards, and regulations

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Acknowledgements
  5. List of Figures
  6. List of Tables
  7. Chapter 1. Introduction to Metrology for Advanced Manufacturing and Micro- and Nanotechnology
    1. 1.1 What is engineering nanometrology?
    2. 1.2 The contents of this book and differences to edition 1
    3. References
  8. Chapter 2. Some Basics of Measurement
    1. 2.1 Introduction to measurement
    2. 2.2 Units of measurement and the SI
    3. 2.3 Length
    4. 2.4 Mass
    5. 2.5 Force
    6. 2.6 Angle
    7. 2.7 Traceability
    8. 2.8 Accuracy, precision, resolution, error and uncertainty
    9. 2.9 The laser
    10. References
  9. Chapter 3. Precision Measurement Instrumentation – Some Design Principles
    1. 3.1 Geometrical considerations
    2. 3.2 Kinematic design
    3. 3.3 Dynamics
    4. 3.4 The Abbe principle
    5. 3.5 Elastic compression
    6. 3.6 Force loops
    7. 3.7 Materials
    8. 3.8 Symmetry
    9. 3.9 Vibration isolation
    10. References
  10. Chapter 4. Length Traceability Using Interferometry
    1. 4.1 Traceability in length
    2. 4.2 Gauge blocks – both a practical and traceable artefact
    3. 4.3 Introduction to interferometry
    4. 4.4 Interferometer designs
    5. 4.5 Measurement of gauge blocks by interferometry
    6. References
  11. Chapter 5. Displacement Measurement
    1. 5.1 Introduction to displacement measurement
    2. 5.2 Basic terms
    3. 5.3 Displacement interferometry
    4. 5.4 Strain sensors
    5. 5.5 Capacitive displacement sensors
    6. 5.6 Eddy current and inductive displacement sensors
    7. 5.7 Optical encoders
    8. 5.8 Optical fibre sensors
    9. 5.9 Other optical displacement sensors
    10. 5.10 Calibration of displacement sensors
    11. References
  12. Chapter 6. Surface Topography Measurement Instrumentation
    1. 6.1 Introduction to surface topography measurement
    2. 6.2 Spatial wavelength ranges
    3. 6.3 Historical background of classical surface texture measuring instrumentation
    4. 6.4 Surface profile measurement
    5. 6.5 Areal surface texture measurement
    6. 6.6 Surface topography measuring instrumentation
    7. 6.7 Optical instruments
    8. 6.8 Capacitive instruments
    9. 6.9 Pneumatic instruments
    10. 6.10 Calibration of surface topography measuring instruments
    11. 6.11 Uncertainties in surface topography measurement
    12. 6.12 Metrological characteristics
    13. 6.13 Comparisons of surface topography measuring instruments
    14. 6.14 Determination of the spatial frequency response
    15. 6.15 Software measurement standards
    16. References
  13. Chapter 7. Scanning Probe and Particle Beam Microscopy
    1. 7.1 Scanning probe microscopy
    2. 7.2 Scanning tunnelling microscopy
    3. 7.3 Atomic force microscopy
    4. 7.4 Examples of physical properties measurement using AFM
    5. 7.5 Scanning probe microscopy of nanoparticles
    6. 7.6 Electron microscopy
    7. 7.7 Other particle beam microscopy techniques
    8. References
  14. Chapter 8. Surface Topography Characterisation
    1. 8.1 Introduction to surface topography characterisation
    2. 8.2 Surface profile characterisation
    3. 8.3 Areal surface texture characterisation
    4. 8.4 Fractal methods
    5. 8.5 Comparison of profile and areal characterisation
    6. References
  15. Chapter 9. Coordinate Metrology
    1. 9.1 Introduction to CMMs
    2. 9.2 Sources of error on CMMs
    3. 9.3 Traceability, calibration and performance verification of CMMs
    4. 9.4 Micro-CMMs
    5. 9.5 Micro-CMM probes
    6. 9.6 Verification and calibration of micro-CMMs
    7. References
  16. Chapter 10. Mass and Force Measurement
    1. 10.1 Traceability of traditional mass measurement
    2. 10.2 Low-mass measurement
    3. 10.3 Low-force measurement
    4. References
  17. Appendix A. SI Units of Measurement and Their Realisation at NPL
  18. Appendix B. SI Derived Units
    1. Examples of SI derived units expressed in terms of base units
    2. SI derived units with special names and symbols
  19. Index