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Functional Materials for Sustainable Energy Applications

Book Description

Global demand for low cost, efficient and sustainable energy production is ever increasing. Driven by recent discoveries and innovation in the science and technology of materials, applications based on functional materials are becoming increasingly important. Functional materials for sustainable energy applications provides an essential guide to the development and application of these materials in sustainable energy production.

Part one reviews functional materials for solar power, including silicon-based, thin-film, and dye sensitized photovoltaic solar cells, thermophotovoltaic device modelling and photoelectrochemical cells. Part two focuses on functional materials for hydrogen production and storage. Functional materials for fuel cells are then explored in part three where developments in membranes, catalysts and membrane electrode assemblies for polymer electrolyte and direct methanol fuel cells are discussed, alongside electrolytes and ion conductors, novel cathodes, anodes, thin films and proton conductors for solid oxide fuel cells. Part four considers functional materials for demand reduction and energy storage, before the book concludes in part five with an investigation into computer simulation studies of functional materials.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Functional materials for sustainable energy applications is an indispensable tool for anyone involved in the research, development, manufacture and application of materials for sustainable energy production, including materials engineers, scientists and academics in the rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field of sustainable energy.

  • An essential guide to the development and application of functional materials in sustainable energy production
  • Reviews functional materials for solar power
  • Focuses on functional materials for hydrogen production and storage, fuel cells, demand reduction and energy storage

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Functional materials for solar power
    1. Chapter 1: Silicon-based photovoltaic solar cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Polysilicon production
      4. 1.3 Crystallisation and wafering
      5. 1.4 Solar cells: materials issues and cell architectures
      6. 1.5 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 2: Photovoltaic (PV) thin-films for solar cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Amorphous silicon thin-film photovoltaic (PV)
      4. 2.3 Cadmium telluride thin-film PV
      5. 2.4 Copper indium diselenide thin-film PV
      6. 2.5 Materials sustainability
      7. 2.6 Future trends
      8. 2.7 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 3: Rapid, low-temperature processing of dye-sensitized solar cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs)
      3. 3.2 Manufacturing issues
      4. 3.3 Sensitization
      5. 3.4 Electrodes
      6. 3.5 Electrolyte
      7. 3.6 Quality control (QC)/lifetime testing
      8. 3.7 Conclusions and future trends
      9. 3.8 Acknowledgements
    4. Chapter 4: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices: introduction and modelling
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction to thermophotovoltaics (TPVs)
      3. 4.2 Practical TPV cell performance
      4. 4.3 Modelling TPV cells
      5. 4.4 Tandem TPV cells
      6. 4.5 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 5: Photoelectrochemical cells for hydrogen generation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Photoelectrochemical cells: principles and energetics
      4. 5.3 Photoelectrochemical cell configurations and efficiency considerations
      5. 5.4 Semiconductor photoanodes: material challenges
      6. 5.5 Semiconductor photocathodes: material challenges
      7. 5.6 Advances in photochemical cell materials and design
      8. 5.7 Interfacial reaction kinetics
      9. 5.8 Future trends
      10. 5.9 Acknowledgements
      11. 5.11 Appendix: abbreviations
  9. Part II: Functional materials for hydrogen production and storage
    1. Chapter 6: Reversible solid oxide electrolytic cells for large-scale energy storage: challenges and opportunities
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction to reversible solid oxide cells
      3. 6.2 Operating principles and functional materials
      4. 6.3 Degradation mechanisms in solid oxide electrolysis cells
      5. 6.4 Research needs and opportunities
      6. 6.5 Summary and conclusions
    2. Chapter 7: Membranes, adsorbent materials and solvent-based materials for syngas and hydrogen separation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 H2-selective membrane materials
      4. 7.3 CO2-selective membrane materials
      5. 7.4 Adsorbent materials for H2/CO2 separation
      6. 7.5 Solvent-based materials for H2/CO2 separation
      7. 7.6 Future trends
      8. 7.7 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 8: Functional materials for hydrogen storage
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Hydrogen storage with metal hydrides: an introduction
      4. 8.3 Hydrogen storage with interstitial hydrides, AlH3 and MgH2
      5. 8.4 Hydrogen storage with complex metal hydrides
      6. 8.5 Hydrogen storage using other chemical systems
      7. 8.6 Hydrogen storage with porous materials and nanoconfined materials
      8. 8.7 Applications of hydrogen storage
      9. 8.8 Conclusions
  10. Part III: Functional materials for fuel cells
    1. Chapter 9: The role of the fuel in the operation, performance and degradation of fuel cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Thermodynamics of fuel cell operation and the effect of fuel on performance
      4. 9.3 Hydrocarbon fuels and fuel processing
      5. 9.4 Methanol
      6. 9.5 Other fuels
      7. 9.6 Deleterious effects of fuels on fuel cell performance
      8. 9.7 Conclusions
      9. 9.8 Acknowledgements
    2. Chapter 10: Membrane electrode assemblies for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Requirements for membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs)
      4. 10.3 Porous backing layer materials
      5. 10.4 Membrane materials
      6. 10.5 MEA electrode catalyst layer
      7. 10.6 MEA performance
      8. 10.7 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 11: Developments in membranes, catalysts and membrane electrode assemblies for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Historica! development and technical challenges
      4. 11.3 Methanol oxidation reaction catalysts
      5. 11.4 Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts
      6. 11.5 Proton exchange membranes
      7. 11.6 Membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication and structure
      8. 11.7 Conclusions and future trends
      9. 11.8 Acknowledgements
    4. Chapter 12: Electrolytes and ion conductors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Oxide ion conduction
      4. 12.3 Electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)
      5. 12.4 Preparation and characterization of electrolyte materials for SOFCs
      6. 12.5 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 13: Novel cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 The oxygen reduction reaction in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and implications for cathode materials
      4. 13.3 Conventional cathode materials: perovskitetype oxides
      5. 13.4 Innovative cathode materials: structural aspects of 2D non-stoichiometric perovskite-related oxides
      6. 13.5 Comparative transport properties and electrochemical performances of 2D non-stoichiometric oxides
      7. 13.6 Ln2NiO4 + δ oxides: innovative and flexible materials for air electrodes of protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) and electrolyzers
      8. 13.7 Prospective conclusions
    6. Chapter 14: Novel anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Requirements for solid oxide fuel cell anode materials
      4. 14.3 Cermet solid oxide fuel cell anode materials
      5. 14.4 Perovskite-structured solid oxide fuel cell anode materials
      6. 14.5 Other oxide anode materials
      7. 14.6 Non-oxide anode materials
      8. 14.7 Poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell anode materials
      9. 14.8 Conclusions and future trends
    7. Chapter 15: Thin-film solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Electrolytes
      4. 15.3 Anode materials
      5. 15.4 Cathode materials
      6. 15.5 Device structures
      7. 15.6 Conclusions
      8. 15.7 Acknowledgments
      9. 15.9 Appendix: glossary
    8. Chapter 16: Proton conductors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 The proton conduction mechanism in high-temperature proton conductor (HTPC) electrolytes
      3. 16.2 Reaction processes at the electrode/electrolyte when using HTPC electrolytes
      4. 16.3 HTPC: the state of the art and challenges
      5. 16.4 Electrodes for HTPC electrolytes: the state of the art and challenges
      6. 16.5 Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on HTPC electrolytes: current status and future perspectives
      7. 16.6 Conclusions
  11. Part IV: Functional materials for demand reduction and energy storage
    1. Chapter 17: Materials and techniques for energy harvesting
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Theory of motion energy harvesting
      4. 17.3 Piezoelectric harvesting
      5. 17.4 Electrostatic harvesting
      6. 17.5 Thermoelectric harvesting
      7. 17.6 Electromagnetic energy harvesting from motion
      8. 17.7 Suspension materials for motion energy harvesting
    2. Chapter 18: Lithium batteries: current technologies and future trends
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Lithium-ion batteries
      4. 18.3 Safety of lithium-ion batteries
      5. 18.4 Energy density of lithium-ion batteries
      6. 18.5 Future trends
      7. 18.6 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 19: Rare-earth magnets: properties, processing and applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Properties of permanent magnetic materials
      4. 19.3 Improving the properties of permanent magnetic materials
      5. 19.4 Processing of permanent magnets
      6. 19.5 Properties of commercially manufactured permanent magnets
      7. 19.6 Applications of permanent magnet materials
  12. Part V: Appendix
    1. Atomic-scale computer simulation of functional materials: methodologies and applications
  13. Index