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Frontiers of Test Validity Theory by Denny Borsboom, Keith A. Markus

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6    Causality in Measurement

Connections With Other Chapters

Chapter 3 introduced generalizability theory as a statistical model that views item scores as samples from a domain. In chapter 5, the associated conceptual model of domain scores was reviewed and analyzed. The chapter concluded that, despite appearances to the contrary, a minimal set of causal assumptions can hardly be avoided in the interpretation of the domain score model. In the present chapter, we discuss models that explicitly use causal relations between constructs and test scores. Two such models are of particular importance: the reflective model, in which test scores are modeled as effects of the construct, and the formative model, in which they are modeled as causes of the ...

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