You are previewing FreeBSD6 Unleashed.
O'Reilly logo
FreeBSD6 Unleashed

Book Description

FreeBSD is extremely robust and powers some of the largest internet sites in world including Yahoo!. FreeBSD 6 Unleashed provides complete coverage of everything you need to know to use FreeBSD to its full potential, including coverage of FreeBSD 6.0. This edition includes updated coverage of Apache, MySQL and Sendmail, as well as added coverage of PowerPC support for Macintosh G3 and G4 platforms. This is the most up to date, comprehensive reference on the market covering FreeBSD 6.0.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. We Want to Hear from You!
  5. Reader Services
  6. Introduction
  7. Introduction to FreeBSD
    1. What Is FreeBSD?
      1. Why Use FreeBSD?
      2. What Can You Do with FreeBSD?
      3. FreeBSD: It’s Not Just for Servers Anymore
      4. A Brief History of FreeBSD and UNIX
      5. The Design Philosophy of UNIX
      6. How FreeBSD Compares to Other Operating Systems
      7. “Beastie,” the FreeBSD Mascot
    2. Installing FreeBSD
      1. Checking Your Hardware
      2. Creating Installation Floppies
      3. Booting into the Install Program
      4. Navigating the Sysinstall Program
      5. Creating Partitions and Assigning Mount Points
      6. Selecting a Canned Distribution Set
      7. Choosing the Installation Media
      8. Post-installation Configuration and Customization
      9. Exiting the Sysinstall Program and Rebooting the System
      10. Booting FreeBSD for the First Time
      11. Setting Up the X Window System (X11)
      12. Shutting Down FreeBSD
    3. Advanced Installation Tasks
      1. Backing Up an Existing Windows or Linux Filesystem
      2. Nondestructive Hard Disk Partitioning with FIPS
      3. Working with FIPS
      4. Potential Problems with and Limitations of Dual-Boot Systems
      5. The FreeBSD Boot Manager
      6. Alternative Installation Methods
  8. FreeBSD on the Desktop
    1. Booting and Shutting Down FreeBSD
      1. The FreeBSD Startup Process
      2. Logging In to FreeBSD
      3. Logging Out of FreeBSD
      4. Shutting Down the FreeBSD System
    2. Working with the X Window System
      1. Introduction to X11
      2. The X Server
      3. Window Managers
      4. KDE and GNOME
      5. Working with Window Managers
      6. The Window Maker Window Manager
    3. Working with Applications
      1. Running GUI and CLI Applications
      2. Working with Text
      3. Office Applications
      4. Creating and Editing Images with GIMP
      5. Audio Applications
      6. Networking Applications
      7. Working with Java Applications
    4. Advanced X11 Configuration
      1. Configuring X11 with the xorgconfig Script
      2. Understanding the xorg.conf File
      3. Testing the X11 Setup
      4. Your Personal .xinitrc File
      5. Working with Fonts
      6. Using Remote X11 Clients
      7. Using the XDM Graphical Login Manager
  9. FreeBSD on the Command Line
    1. Working with the Shell
      1. Introducing the Shell
      2. Choosing a Shell for FreeBSD
      3. Changing Your Shell
      4. Getting Help in the Shell
      5. Basic Shell File Manipulation
      6. Text-Related Commands
      7. Pipes and Input/Output Redirection
      8. Command Completion and History Editing
    2. Customizing the Shell
      1. Adding Shells to the System and Making Them Available
      2. Using Alternative Shells
      3. Shell Initialization Files
      4. Customizing Your Shell Environment
      5. Shell and Environment Variables
    3. Shell Programming
      1. Why Shell Programming Matters to You
      2. A Simple Shell Program
      3. Variables
      4. Interacting with the User
      5. Arithmetic in Shell Programs
      6. Loops
      7. Conditional Statements
      8. Exit Status
      9. Functions
      10. Filehandles
      11. Debugging Shell Scripts
      12. Advanced Features of Korn Shell Scripting
    4. Introduction to Perl Programming
      1. Perl in FreeBSD
      2. Fundamentals of Perl Scripting
      3. A Simple Perl Script
      4. Advanced Perl Techniques
      5. Useful Perl Resources
  10. System Administration
    1. The FreeBSD Filesystem
      1. The FreeBSD Directory Structure
      2. Monitoring Filesystem Usage
      3. Mounting and Unmounting FreeBSD Filesystems
      4. Mounting and Unmounting Filesystems from Other Operating Systems
      5. Mounting and Unmounting CD-ROM and Floppy-Based Filesystems
      6. Understanding the /etc/fstab File
      7. Checking and Repairing Filesystems with fsck
      8. Setting and Enforcing Disk Usage Quotas
      9. Blocks, Files, and Inodes
    2. Users, Groups, and Permissions
      1. Introduction to Users and Groups
      2. Why Use Groups?
      3. File Ownership
      4. File and Directory Permissions
      5. Access Control Lists (ACLs)
      6. Adding and Removing Users
      7. User Management Using NIS
    3. System Configuration and Startup Scripts
      1. Understanding the FreeBSD Startup Process
      2. Resource Configuration Scripts
      3. The inetd Daemon and the inetd.conf Configuration File
      4. The System Logger (syslogd) and the syslog.conf File
      5. Notes on the /etc/rc.local File
    4. Performance Monitoring, Process Control, and Job Automation
      1. Performance Monitoring with top
      2. Process Monitoring with ps
      3. Terminating Misbehaving Processes
      4. Making Processes “Nice”
      5. Automating Processes with the cron Scheduler Daemon
      6. Creating Jobs to Run One Scheduled Time with the at Command
      7. Controlling Access to the cron and at Commands
      8. Using the Periodic Task Scheduler
    5. Installing Additional Software
      1. Introduction to Packages
      2. Installing Packages
      3. Removing and Updating Packages
      4. Introduction to Ports
      5. Installing and Removing Ports
      6. Updating and Maintaining Your Ports
      7. Upgrading a Port
      8. Fresh Ports
    6. Printing
      1. How lpd, the Print Spooler, and the Print Queue Function in FreeBSD
      2. Kernel, Device, and Communications Mode Configuration
      3. Creating the Spool Directory and Setting Its Permissions
      4. Setting Up Text and Conversion Filters
      5. Configuring /etc/printcap to Control Print System Functions
      6. Enabling lpd for Command-Line Printing
      7. Basic Command-Line Printing
      8. Printing from X11 Applications
      9. Using the lpq Command to Check the Status of Print Jobs
      10. Removing Jobs from the Queue with the lprm Command
      11. Controlling Printers
      12. Basic Network Printing
      13. Next-Generation Printing with CUPS
      14. Troubleshooting
    7. Kernel Configuration
      1. The Role of the Kernel
      2. Kernel Modules
      3. Why Configure a Custom Kernel?
      4. The Kernel Configuration Files
      5. Creating a Custom Kernel Configuration File
      6. Compiling and Installing the Custom Kernel
      7. Adding Device Nodes to the /dev Directory
      8. Recovering When Something Goes Wrong
    8. Keeping Up to Date with FreeBSD
      1. Tracking the FreeBSD Sources
      2. Upgrading with make world
      3. Things to Consider Before Choosing a make world Upgrade
      4. Pre–make world Tasks
      5. Rebuilding Your System from Sources
      6. Using mergemaster to Check for Changed Configuration Files
      7. Rebooting After the Upgrade
    9. Adding Hard Disk Storage
      1. IDE/ATA Access Modes
      2. SCSI Disks
      3. Understanding Hard Disk Geometry
      4. Partitioning a Hard Disk
      5. Creating the Disk Labels
      6. Making the Filesystem Available for Use
      7. Enhancing Disk Performance Using RAID and Vinum
    10. FreeBSD Survival Guide
      1. Migrating to FreeBSD
      2. Do’s and Don’ts (Common Gotchas)
      3. Performance Tuning
      4. Preparing for the Worst: Backups and Mirrors
  11. FreeBSD Networking
    1. Principles of TCP/IP Networking
      1. Introduction to Networking
      2. Network Topologies
      3. Network Components
      4. Wireless Routers
      5. Network Protocols
      6. IP Addresses
      7. Routing
      8. Hostnames and Domain Names
      9. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Automatic IP Addressing
    2. Configuring Basic Networking Services
      1. Configuring the Network Card
      2. Configuring Network Settings with Sysinstall
      3. Configuring Network Settings Without Sysinstall
      4. Creating IP Aliases
      5. Mapping Names to IP Addresses with the /etc/hosts File
      6. Testing Network Connectivity with ping
      7. Configuring DNS with the /etc/resolv.conf File
      8. A Look at Other Network Configuration Files
    3. Networking with PPP and 802.11
      1. Dialing Up with PPP
      2. PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE)
      3. Troubleshooting PPP
      4. Connecting to a Wireless (802.11) Network
    4. Configuring Email Services
      1. Introduction to SMTP
      2. Mail Transfer Agents (MTAs) and Mail User Agents (MUAs)
      3. Configuring Basic Email Services with Sendmail
      4. Understanding Relaying
      5. Introduction to POP3
      6. Configuring a POP3 Server with Qpopper
      7. Configuring an IMAP Server with IMAP-UW
      8. Email for Standalone Workstations
      9. Filtering Junk Mail with Procmail and SpamAssassin
      10. A Look at Some Sendmail Replacements
    5. Configuring a Web Server
      1. Introduction to the HTTP Protocol
      2. Obtaining and Installing Apache
      3. Apache File Layout
      4. Configuring Apache
      5. Starting and Stopping the HTTP Daemon
      6. Basic Access Control with Apache
      7. Virtual Hosting
      8. Introduction to Apache Modules
      9. Server-Side Includes
      10. Introduction to CGI
    6. Configuring an FTP Server
      1. Introduction to the File Transfer Protocol
      2. File Layouts of Authenticated and Anonymous FTP
      3. Configuring the FTP Server
      4. Controlling FTP Access
      5. Allowing Anonymous FTP Access
      6. Virtual Hosting
      7. Using Alternative FTP Servers
    7. Configuring an Internet Gateway
      1. The Basics of Routers and Network Address Translation (NAT)
      2. Configuring a NAT Gateway in FreeBSD
      3. Enabling NAT for Systems Without Static IP Addresses
      4. Configuring Clients to Use the New Gateway
      5. Configuring a Wireless Internet Access Point
      6. Routing Between Three or More Networks
      7. Dynamic Routing
    8. Configuring a Database Server
      1. Introduction to Database Design and Administration
      2. SQL: Structured Query Language
      3. Using the MySQL and PostgreSQL Open-Source Databases
      4. Constructing a Database System
      5. Writing Administration Scripts
      6. Connecting a Database to the Web
      7. Using PHP to Provide Database-Driven Content to Web Pages
      8. Optimizing Database Performance
      9. Performing Database System Backups
    9. Network Security
      1. Choosing a Security Model Based on Your Security Risks
      2. Security Models
      3. The Security Risks You Face
      4. Password Policies
      5. Avoiding Problems with Clear-Text Services
      6. Securing Terminal Traffic (SSH)
      7. Securing Email Services (POP3 and IMAP)
      8. Securing FTP
      9. Securing Apache
      10. System Security Profiles and Kernel Security (Securelevels)
      11. Using a Firewall
      12. Preventing Intrusions and Compromises
      13. Denial of Service (DOS) Attacks
      14. Physical Security
      15. Other Security Resources
    10. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
      1. What Is a VPN?
      2. VPN Topologies
      3. VPN Services in FreeBSD: IPSec
      4. FreeBSD as a VPN Server
    11. The Domain Name Server
      1. Introduction to DNS Structure, Functions, and Software
      2. Enabling the Name Server Daemon
      3. Running BIND in a Sandbox
      4. Working with the BIND Configuration File (named.conf)
      5. Creating a Zone File
      6. Configuring a Caching Name Server
    12. The Network Filesystem (NFS)
      1. Introduction to NFS
      2. Configuring an NFS Server
      3. Configuring an NFS Client
      4. Auto-Mount Daemon (amd)
    13. File and Print Sharing with Microsoft Windows
      1. SMB/CIFS and Samba
      2. Installing and Configuring Samba
      3. Other Samba Components
      4. Accessing Shared Files on a Windows System (the smbfs Filesystem)
    14. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
      1. How DHCP Works
      2. Enabling DHCP
      3. The dhclient Program
      4. Running a DHCP Server
  12. Appendixes
    1. Command Reference and Configuration File Reference
      1. Command Options
      2. File- and Directory-Manipulation Commands
      3. User and Permissions Management Commands
      4. Common Shell Commands
      5. System Utilities and Maintenance-Related Commands
      6. Printer-Related Commands
      7. Software Installation and Removal Commands
      8. Common Configuration Files
    2. Hardware Compatibility Lists
      1. System Requirements
      2. Supported Hardware
      3. Video Cards Supported by X11
    3. Troubleshooting Installation and Boot Problems
      1. Installation Problems
      2. Boot Problems and Other Non-installation Problems
    4. Sources for More Information
      1. FreeBSD-Specific Resources
      2. Other BSD-Related Resources
      3. Other Internet Resources