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Forensic Photography: A Practitioner's Guide

Book Description

Forensic photography plays a vitally important part in the investigation of crime and the subsequent administration of justice. Written by a practitioner with many years professional experience, this book provides an overview of the most common forensic photography techniques in use today for those readers who may not have a detailed understanding of camera techniques and who need to get to grips with the use of light and other key scientific aspects of the job. It covers image capture issues, file handling and relevant equipment, such as lasers and UV lights, and explores how they work.

The predominance of the digital camera has resulted in an increasing trend for police forces across the world to use untrained camera users, rather than expert photographers. Therefore, this book will prove invaluable for those practitioners who need to produce accurate and clear photographic evidence, above and beyond the point and shoot mode on their cameras.

Table of Contents

  1. Foreword
  2. Preface
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. About the Companion Website
  5. Chapter 1: Image Processing
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 The digital image
    3. 1.3 Image acquisition
    4. 1.4 Colour images
    5. 1.5 The imaging chain and workflow
    6. 1.6 White balance
    7. 1.7 Image histogram
    8. 1.8 Image processing terminology
    9. 1.9 Digital image processing operations
    10. 1.10 Classes of operations
    11. 1.11 Noise reduction
    12. 1.12 Sharpening filters
    13. 1.13 History log
    14. 1.14 Layers
    15. 1.15 Bit depth and dynamic range
    16. 1.16 File formats
    17. 1.17 Image compression
    18. 1.18 Image processing at image capture
    19. 1.19 Properties of common formats
    20. 1.20 Image archiving and the audit trail
    21. 1.21 Printing images
    22. 1.22 Image storage
    23. 1.23 Summary
    24. Notes
  6. Chapter 2: Cameras and Lenses
    1. 2.1 Overview
    2. 2.2 Cameras
    3. 2.3 Exposure
    4. 2.4 ISOs
    5. 2.5 The shutter
    6. 2.6 F-stops and apertures
    7. 2.7 So what is the correct exposure?
    8. 2.8 Metering modes
    9. 2.9 Getting the right exposure
    10. 2.10 Dynamic range
    11. 2.11 Depth of field and focus
    12. 2.12 Lenses
    13. Reference
    14. Notes
  7. Chapter 3: The Use of Flash
    1. 3.1 How does it work?
    2. 3.2 Guide numbers
    3. 3.3 Flash modes
    4. 3.4 The inverse square law (ISL)
    5. 3.5 The practical application of flash
    6. 3.6 Types of flash
  8. Chapter 4: Crime Scene Photography
    1. 4.1 Overview
    2. 4.2 Personal protective equipment (PPE)
    3. 4.3 The generics of scene photography
    4. 4.4 Photographic equipment
    5. 4.5 Composition
    6. 4.6 Specific types of scenes
    7. 4.7 Appendix 1: Trouble-shooting
    8. References
    9. Notes
  9. Chapter 5: Light as a Forensic Photographer's Tool
    1. 5.1 Overview of alternative light sources (ALS)
    2. 5.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS)
    3. 5.3 Fluorescence
    4. 5.4 Alternative light sources
    5. 5.5 Filters
    6. 5.6 Infrared (IR)
    7. 5.7 White light
    8. 5.8 Conclusion
    9. References
    10. Notes
  10. Chapter 6: The Photography of Injuries
    1. 6.1 Overview
    2. 6.2 The nature of injuries
    3. 6.3 The photography
    4. 6.4 Before we start
    5. 6.5 Techniques and equipment required
    6. 6.6 The colour reference
    7. 6.7 Reflected Ultraviolet (UV)
    8. 6.8 Lenses
    9. 6.9 Lighting
    10. 6.10 Capturing the image
    11. References
    12. Further useful reading
    13. Notes
  11. Chapter 7: Finger and Shoe Mark Photography
    1. 7.1 Overview
    2. 7.2 The nature of finger marks
    3. 7.3 Shoe marks
    4. 7.4 Equipment
    5. 7.5 Lighting techniques
    6. 7.6 Chemically enhanced marks
    7. 7.7 Latent marks
    8. 7.8 Shoe marks
    9. 7.9 Tyre marks
    10. 7.10 Blood enhancement techniques
    11. References
    12. Notes
  12. Chapter 8: The Proactive Use of Light in Forensic Photography
    1. 8.1 Overview
    2. 8.2 The detection of body fluids using an alternative light source
    3. 8.3 Inks
    4. 8.4 Sign writing
    5. 8.5 The detection of blood
    6. 8.6 Luminol
    7. 8.7 Other uses of Infrared (IR)
    8. References
    9. Notes
  13. Chapter 9: Specialist Equipment and Techniques
    1. 9.1 Peripheral cameras
    2. 9.2 Object modelling
    3. 9.3 Multi-spectral imaging camera
    4. 9.4 High speed imaging
    5. 9.5 UVC photography
    6. References
    7. Notes
  14. Chapter 10: Panoramic (Immersive or 360°) and Elevated imaging
    1. 10.1 Overview
    2. 10.2 Spheron
    3. 10.3 Digital Single Lens Reflex 360°
    4. 10.4 Elevated imaging
    5. Reference
    6. Notes
  15. Appendix 1: Tripods and Camera Supports
    1. A.1 Tripods
    2. A.2 Scene tripods
    3. A.3 Other types of camera platforms
    4. A.4 Video tripods
    5. A.5 Other types of clamps
    6. Notes
  16. Index
  17. End User License Agreement