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Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering

Book Description

The book aims at providing to master and PhD students the basic knowledge in fluid mechanics for chemical engineers. Applications to mixing and reaction and to mechanical separation processes are addressed.

The first part of the book presents the principles of fluid mechanics used by chemical engineers, with a focus on global theorems for describing the behavior of hydraulic systems. The second part deals with turbulence and its application for stirring, mixing and chemical reaction. The third part addresses mechanical separation processes by considering the dynamics of particles in a flow and the processes of filtration, fluidization and centrifugation. The mechanics of granular media is finally discussed.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Part I: Elements in Fluid Mechanics
    1. Chapter 1: Local Equations of Fluid Mechanics
      1. 1.1. Forces, stress tensor, and pressure
      2. 1.2. Navier–Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates
      3. 1.3. The plane Poiseuille flow
      4. 1.4. Navier–Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates: Poiseuille flow in a circular cylindrical pipe
      5. 1.5. Plane Couette flow
      6. 1.6. The boundary layer concept
      7. 1.7. Solutions of Navier–Stokes equations where a gravity field is present, hydrostatic pressure
      8. 1.8. Buoyancy force
      9. 1.9. Some conclusions on the solutions of Navier–Stokes equations
    2. Chapter 2: Global Theorems of Fluid Mechanics
      1. 2.1. Euler equations in an intrinsic coordinate system
      2. 2.2. Bernoulli’s theorem
      3. 2.3. Pressure variation in a direction normal to a streamline
      4. 2.4. Momentum theorem
      5. 2.5. Evaluating friction for a steady-state flow in a straight pipe
      6. 2.6. Pressure drop in a sudden expansion (Borda calculation)
      7. 2.7. Using the momentum theorem in the presence of gravity
      8. 2.8. Kinetic energy balance and dissipation
      9. 2.9. Application exercises
    3. Chapter 3: Dimensional Analysis
      1. 3.1. Principle of dimensional analysis, Vaschy–Buckingham theorem
      2. 3.2. Dimensional study of Navier–Stokes equations
      3. 3.3. Similarity theory
      4. 3.4. An application example: fall velocity of a spherical particle in a viscous fluid at rest
      5. 3.5. Application exercises
    4. Chapter 4: Steady–State Hydraulic Circuits
      1. 4.1. Operating point of a hydraulic circuit
      2. 4.2. Steady-state flows in straight pipes: regular head loss
      3. 4.3. Turbulence in a pipe and velocity profile of the flow
      4. 4.4. Singular head losses
      5. 4.5. Notions on cavitation
      6. 4.6. Application exercises
      7. 4.7. Bibliography
    5. Chapter 5: Pumps
      1. 5.1. Centrifugal pumps
      2. 5.2. Classification of turbo pumps and axial pumps
      3. 5.3. Positive displacement pumps
    6. Chapter 6: Transient Flows in Hydraulic Circuits: Water Hammers
      1. 6.1. Sound propagation in a rigid pipe
      2. 6.2. Over-pressures associated with a water hammer: characteristic time of a hydraulic circuit
      3. 6.3. Linear elasticity of a solid body: sound propagation in an elastic pipe
      4. 6.4. Water hammer prevention devices
    7. Chapter 7: Notions of Rheometry
      1. 7.1. Rheology
      2. 7.2. Strain, strain rate, solids and fluids
      3. 7.3. A rheology experiment: behavior of a material subjected to shear
      4. 7.4. The circular cylindrical rheometer (or Couette rheometer)
      5. 7.5. Application exercises
  6. Part II: Mixing and Chemical Reactions
    1. Chapter 8: Large Scales in Turbulence: Turbulent Diffusion – Dispersion
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Concept of average in the turbulent sense, steady turbulence, and homogeneous turbulence
      3. 8.3. Average velocity and RMS turbulent velocity
      4. 8.4. Length scale of turbulence: integral scale.
      5. 8.5. Turbulent flux of a scalar quantity: averaged diffusion equation
      6. 8.6. Modeling turbulent fluxes using the mixing length model
      7. 8.7. Turbulent dispersion
      8. 8.8. The k-ε model
      9. 8.9. Appendix: solution of a diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates
      10. 8.10. Application exercises
    2. Chapter 9: Hydrodynamics and Residence Time Distribution – Stirring
      1. 9.1. Turbulence and residence time distribution
      2. 9.2. Stirring
      3. 9.3. Appendix: interfaces and the notion of surface tension
    3. Chapter 10: Micromixing and Macromixing
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Characterization of the mixture: segregation index
      3. 10.3. The dynamics of mixing
      4. 10.4. Homogenization of a scalar field by molecular diffusion: micromixing
      5. 10.5. Diffusion and chemical reactions
      6. 10.6. Macromixing, micromixing, and chemical reactions
      7. 10.7. Experimental demonstration of the micromixing process
    4. Chapter 11: Small Scales in Turbulence
      1. 11.1. Notion of signal processing, expansion of a time signal into Fourier series
      2. 11.2. Turbulent energy spectrum.
      3. 11.3. Kolmogorov’s theory
      4. 11.4. The Kolmogorov scale.
      5. 11.5. Application to macromixing, micromixing and chemical reaction
      6. 11.6. Application exercises
    5. Chapter 12: Micromixing Models
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. CD model
      3. 12.3. Model of interaction by exchange with the mean
      4. 12.4. Conclusion
      5. 12.5. Application exercise
  7. Part III: Mechanical Separation
    1. Chapter 13: Physical Description of a Particulate Medium Dispersed Within a Fluid
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. Solid particles
      3. 13.3 Fluid particles
      4. 13.4. Mass balance of a mechanical separation process
    2. Chapter 14: Flows in Porous Media
      1. 14.1. Consolidated porous media; non-consolidated porous media, and geometrical characterization
      2. 14.2. Darcy’s law
      3. 14.3. Examples of application of Darcy’s law
      4. 14.4. Modeling Darcy’s law through an analogy with the flow inside a network of capillary tubes
      5. 14.5. Modeling permeability, Kozeny-Carman formula
      6. 14.6. Ergun’s relation
      7. 14.7. Draining by pressing
      8. 14.8. The reverse osmosis process
      9. 14.9. Energetics of membrane separation
      10. 14.10. Application exercises
    3. Chapter 15: Particles Within the Gravity Field
      1. 15.1. Settling of a rigid particle in a fluid at rest
      2. 15.2. Settling of a set of solid particles in a fluid at rest
      3. 15.3. Settling or rising of a fluid particle in a fluid at rest
      4. 15.4. Particles being held in suspension by Brownian motion
      5. 15.5. Particles being held in suspension by turbulence
      6. 15.6. Fluidized beds
      7. 15.7. Application exercises
    4. Chapter 16: Movement of a Solid Particle in a Fluid Flow
      1. 16.1. Notations and hypotheses
      2. 16.2. The Basset, Boussinesq, Oseen, and Tchen equation
      3. 16.3. Movement of a particle subjected to gravity in a fluid at rest
      4. 16.4. Movement of a particle in a steady, unidirectional shear flow
      5. 16.5. Lift force applied to a particle by a unidirectional flow
      6. 16.6. Centrifugation of a particle in a rotating flow
      7. 16.7. Applications to the transport of a particle in a turbulent flow or in a laminar flow
    5. Chapter 17: Centrifugal Separation
      1. 17.1 Rotating flows, circulation, and velocity curl
      2. 17.2. Some examples of rotating flows
      3. 17.3. The principle of centrifugal separation
      4. 17.4. Centrifuge decanters
      5. 17.5. Centrifugal separators
      6. 17.6. Centrifugal filtration
      7. 17.7. Hydrocyclones
      8. 17.8. Energetics of centrifugal separation.
      9. 17.9. Application exercise
    6. Chapter 18: Notions on Granular Materials
      1. 18.1. Static friction: Coulomb’s law of friction
      2. 18.2. Non-cohesive granular materials: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction
      3. 18.3. Microscopic approach to a granular material
      4. 18.4. Macroscopic modeling of the equilibrium of a granular material in a silo
      5. 18.5. Flow of a granular material: example of an hourglass
  8. Physical Properties of Common Fluids
  9. Index