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Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers with Microfluidics and CFD, Second Edition

Book Description

The Chemical Engineer's Practical Guide to Contemporary Fluid Mechanics

Since most chemical processing applications are conducted either partially or totally in the fluid phase, chemical engineers need a strong understanding of fluid mechanics. Such knowledge is especially valuable for solving problems in the biochemical, chemical, energy, fermentation, materials, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, polymer, and waste-processing industries.

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Second Edition, with Microfluidics and CFD, systematically introduces fluid mechanics from the perspective of the chemical engineer who must understand actual physical behavior and solve real-world problems. Building on a first edition that earned Choice Magazine's Outstanding Academic Title award, this edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the field's latest advances.

This second edition contains extensive new coverage of both microfluidics and computational fluid dynamics, systematically demonstrating CFD through detailed examples using FlowLab and COMSOL Multiphysics. The chapter on turbulence has been extensively revised to address more complex and realistic challenges, including turbulent mixing and recirculating flows.

Part I offers a clear, succinct, easy-to-follow introduction to macroscopic fluid mechanics, including physical properties; hydrostatics; basic rate laws for mass, energy, and momentum; and the fundamental principles of flow through pumps, pipes, and other equipment. Part II turns to microscopic fluid mechanics, which covers

  • Differential equations of fluid mechanics

  • Viscous-flow problems, some including polymer processing

  • Laplace's equation, irrotational, and porous-media flows

  • Nearly unidirectional flows, from boundary layers to lubrication, calendering, and thin-film applications

  • Turbulent flows, showing how the k/ε method extends conventional mixing-length theory

  • Bubble motion, two-phase flow, and fluidization

  • Non-Newtonian fluids, including inelastic and viscoelastic fluids

  • Microfluidics and electrokinetic flow effects including electroosmosis, electrophoresis, streaming potentials, and electroosmotic switching

  • Computational fluid mechanics with FlowLab and COMSOL Multiphysics

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Second Edition, with Microfluidics and CFD, includes 83 completely worked practical examples, several of which involve FlowLab and COMSOL Multiphysics. There are also 330 end-of-chapter problems of varying complexity, including several from the University of Cambridge chemical engineering examinations. The author covers all the material needed for the fluid mechanics portion of the Professional Engineer's examination.

The author's Web site, www.engin.umich.edu/~fmche/, provides additional notes on individual chapters, problem-solving tips, errata, and more.



Table of Contents

  1. About This eBook
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Part I: Macroscopic Fluid Mechanics
    1. Chapter 1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
      1. 1.1. Fluid Mechanics in Chemical Engineering
      2. 1.2. General Concepts of a Fluid
      3. 1.3. Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws
      4. 1.4. Physical Properties—Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension
      5. 1.5. Units and Systems of Units
      6. 1.6. Hydrostatics
      7. 1.7. Pressure Change Caused by Rotation
      8. Problems for Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2. Mass, Energy, and Momentum Balances
      1. 2.1. General Conservation Laws
      2. 2.2. Mass Balances
      3. 2.3. Energy Balances
      4. 2.4. Bernoulli’s Equation
      5. 2.5. Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
      6. 2.6. Momentum Balances
      7. 2.7. Pressure, Velocity, and Flow Rate Measurement
      8. Problems for Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3. Fluid Friction in Pipes
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Laminar Flow
      3. 3.3. Models for Shear Stress
      4. 3.4. Piping and Pumping Problems
      5. 3.5. Flow in Noncircular Ducts
      6. 3.6. Compressible Gas Flow in Pipelines
      7. 3.7. Compressible Flow in Nozzles
      8. 3.8. Complex Piping Systems
      9. Problems for Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4. Flow in Chemical Engineering Equipment
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Pumps and Compressors
      3. 4.3. Drag Force on Solid Particles in Fluids
      4. 4.4. Flow Through Packed Beds
      5. 4.5. Filtration
      6. 4.6. Fluidization
      7. 4.7. Dynamics of a Bubble-Cap Distillation Column
      8. 4.8. Cyclone Separators
      9. 4.9. Sedimentation
      10. 4.10. Dimensional Analysis
      11. Problems for Chapter 4
  8. Part II: Microscopic Fluid Mechanics
    1. Chapter 5. Differential Equations of Fluid Mechanics
      1. 5.1. Introduction to Vector Analysis
      2. 5.2. Vector Operations
      3. 5.3. Other Coordinate Systems
      4. 5.4. The Convective Derivative
      5. 5.5. Differential Mass Balance
      6. 5.6. Differential Momentum Balances
      7. 5.7. Newtonian Stress Components in Cartesian Coordinates
      8. Problems for Chapter 5
    2. Chapter 6. Solution of Viscous-Flow Problems
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Solution of the Equations of Motion in Rectangular Coordinates
      3. 6.3. Alternative Solution Using a Shell Balance
      4. 6.4. Poiseuille and Couette Flows in Polymer Processing
      5. 6.5. Solution of the Equations of Motion in Cylindrical Coordinates
      6. 6.6. Solution of the Equations of Motion in Spherical Coordinates
      7. Problems for Chapter 6
    3. Chapter 7. Laplace’s Equation, Irrotational and Porous-Media Flows
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Rotational and Irrotational Flows
      3. 7.3. Steady Two-Dimensional Irrotational Flow
      4. 7.4. Physical Interpretation of the Stream Function
      5. 7.5. Examples of Planar Irrotational Flow
      6. 7.6. Axially Symmetric Irrotational Flow
      7. 7.7. Uniform Streams and Point Sources
      8. 7.8. Doublets and Flow Past a Sphere
      9. 7.9. Single-Phase Flow in a Porous Medium
      10. 7.10. Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media
      11. 7.11. Wave Motion in Deep Water
      12. Problems for Chapter 7
    4. Chapter 8. Boundary-Layer and Other Nearly Unidirectional Flows
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Simplified Treatment of Laminar Flow Past a Flat Plate
      3. 8.3. Simplification of the Equations of Motion
      4. 8.4. Blasius Solution for Boundary-Layer Flow
      5. 8.5. Turbulent Boundary Layers
      6. 8.6. Dimensional Analysis of the Boundary-Layer Problem
      7. 8.7. Boundary-Layer Separation
      8. 8.8. The Lubrication Approximation
      9. 8.9. Polymer Processing by Calendering
      10. 8.10. Thin Films and Surface Tension
      11. Problems for Chapter 8
    5. Chapter 9. Turbulent Flow
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Physical Interpretation of the Reynolds Stresses
      3. 9.3. Mixing-Length Theory
      4. 9.4. Determination of Eddy Kinematic Viscosity and Mixing Length
      5. 9.5. Velocity Profiles Based on Mixing-Length Theory
      6. 9.6. The Universal Velocity Profile for Smooth Pipes
      7. 9.7. Friction Factor in Terms of Reynolds Number for Smooth Pipes
      8. 9.8. Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer
      9. 9.9. Velocity Profiles and Friction Factor for Rough Pipe
      10. 9.10. Blasius-Type Law and the Power-Law Velocity Profile
      11. 9.11. A Correlation for the Reynolds Stresses
      12. 9.12. Computation of Turbulence by the k/ε Method
      13. 9.13. Analogies Between Momentum and Heat Transfer
      14. 9.14. Turbulent Jets
      15. Problems for Chapter 9
    6. Chapter 10. Bubble Motion, Two-Phase Flow, and Fluidization
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Rise of Bubbles in Unconfined Liquids
      3. 10.3. Pressure Drop and Void Fraction in Horizontal Pipes
      4. 10.4. Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Pipes
      5. 10.5. Flooding
      6. 10.6. Introduction to Fluidization
      7. 10.7. Bubble Mechanics
      8. 10.8. Bubbles in Aggregatively Fluidized Beds
      9. Problems for Chapter 10
    7. Chapter 11. Non-Newtonian Fluids
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. Classification of Non-Newtonian Fluids
      3. 11.3. Constitutive Equations for Inelastic Viscous Fluids
      4. 11.4. Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Fluids
      5. 11.5. Response to Oscillatory Shear
      6. 11.6. Characterization of the Rheological Properties of Fluids
      7. Problems for Chapter 11
    8. Chapter 12. Microfluidics and Electrokinetic Flow Effects
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Physics of Microscale Fluid Mechanics
      3. 12.3. Pressure-Driven Flow Through Microscale Tubes
      4. 12.4. Mixing, Transport, and Dispersion
      5. 12.5. Species, Energy, and Charge Transport
      6. 12.6. The Electrical Double Layer and Electrokinetic Phenomena
      7. 12.7. Measuring the Zeta Potential
      8. 12.8. Electroviscosity
      9. 12.9. Particle and Macromolecule Motion in Microfluidic Channels
      10. Problems for Chapter 12
    9. Chapter 13. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flowlab
      1. 13.1. Introduction and Motivation
      2. 13.2. Numerical Methods
      3. 13.3. Learning CFD by Using FlowLab
      4. 13.4. Practical CFD Examples
      5. References for Chapter 13
    10. Chapter 14. COMSOL (FEMLAB) Multiphysics for Solving Fluid Mechanics Problems
      1. 14.1. Introduction to COMSOL Multiphysics
      2. 14.2. How to Run COMSOL
      3. 14.3. Draw Mode
      4. 14.4. Solution and Related Modes
      5. 14.5. Fluid Mechanics Problems Solvable by COMSOL
      6. Problems for Chapter 14
  9. Appendix A. Useful Mathematical Relationships
    1. Geometrical Shapes
    2. Derivatives
    3. Integrals
    4. Trigonometric Identities
    5. Hyperbolic Functions
    6. Taylor’s Expansion
    7. Simpson’s Rule
    8. Solution of ODEs by Separation of Variables
    9. Numerical Solution of Differential Equations by Euler’s Method
    10. Curvature
    11. Leibnitz’s Rule
    12. Successive Substitutions
  10. Appendix B. Answers to the True/False Assertions
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  11. Appendix C. Some Vector and Tensor Operations
  12. Index
  13. The Authors