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Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines

Book Description

Fluid Mechanics And Hydraulic Machines is designed for the course on fluid mechanics and hydraulic machines offered to the undergraduate students of mechanical and civil engineering. Written in a lucid style, the book lays emphasis on explaining the logic and physics of critical problems to develop analytical skills in the reader.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Symbols Used
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Fluid Statics
    1. 1.1 Introduction
      1. 1.1.1 About the Substance
      2. 1.1.2 Fluid Mechanics
    2. 1.2 Continuum Concept
      1. 1.2.1 Introduction to Stress and Strain
      2. 1.2.2 Other Properties of Fluids
    3. 1.3 Pressure Variation and Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces Submerged in Fluid at Rest
      1. 1.3.1 Pressure Force on a Plane Surface
      2. 1.3.2 Pressure Force on a Curved Surface
    4. 1.4 Metacentric Height
      1. 1.4.1 Determination of Metacentric Heights
    5. 1.5 Pressure Variation in Liquids Confined in Moving Container
      1. 1.5.1 Container Moving with Constant Acceleration
      2. 1.5.2 Container Subjected to a Constant Rotation
        1. Summary
        2. Review Questions
        3. Problems for Practice
  8. 2. Mathematical Modelling of Flow
    1. 2.1 Introduction
      1. 2.1.1 Coordinate System
    2. 2.2 Formulation of the Problem
      1. 2.2.1 Types of Flow
      2. 2.2.2 Formulation Approach
    3. 2.3 Kinematics
      1. 2.3.1 Stream Function
      2. 2.3.2 Vorticity and Velocity Potential
      3. 2.3.3 Circulation
    4. 2.4 Conservation Laws
      1. 2.4.1 Conservation of Mass — Continuity Equation
      2. 2.4.2 Conservation of Momentum
      3. 2.4.3 Conservation of Energy — Energy Equation
    5. 2.5 Nature of the Equation and Required Boundary Conditions
      1. Additional Problems
      2. Summary
      3. Review Questions
      4. Problems for Practice
  9. 3. Ideal Fluid Flow
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Basic Flows
    3. 3.3 Superimposition of Basic Flows
      1. 3.3.1 Source–Sink Pair and Doublet
      2. 3.3.2 Flow Around Half Bodies
      3. 3.3.3 Flow Around Elliptic Bodies
      4. 3.3.4 Flow Around Cylinder
      5. 3.3.5 Flow Around Aerofoil
      6. 3.3.6 Lift on Aerofoil
    4. 3.4 Integration of Euler’s Equation—Bernoulli Equation
      1. 3.4.1 Application of Bernoulli Equation
    5. 3.5 Modified Bernoulli Equation
      1. Review Questions
      2. Problems for Practice
  10. 4. Flow Through Pipe and Channel
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Losses in Pipe Flow
      1. 4.2.1 Minor Losses
      2. 4.2.2 Series and Parallel Arrangement
    3. 4.3 Hydraulic Power Transmitted Through Pipe
    4. 4.4 Water Hammer
    5. 4.5 Flow in Open Channel
      1. 4.5.1 Uniform Flow
      2. 4.5.2 Gradually Varying Flow
      3. 4.5.3 Alternate Depth for Mean Depth
      4. 4.5.3 Non-uniform Flow
        1. Review Questions
        2. Problems for Practice
  11. 5. Laminar Flow
    1. 5.1 Introduction—Types of Solutions
    2. 5.2 Exact Solution of N–S Equation
      1. 5.2.1 Couette Flow
      2. 5.2.2 Hagen–Poiseuille Flow
      3. 5.2.3 Flow Between Rotating Cylinders
    3. 5.3 Low Reynolds Flow
      1. 5.3.1 Stokes Flow
      2. 5.3.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication
    4. 5.4 Boundary Layer
      1. 5.4.1 Displacement, Momentum and Energy Thickness
      2. 5.4.2 Prandtl Boundary Layer Equations
      3. 5.4.3 Solution of Boundary Layer Equations
    5. 5.5 Integral Solution for Boundary Layer
    6. 5.6 Boundary Layer Separation and Control
    7. 5.7 Flow over Curved Surfaces
      1. Review Questions
      2. Problems for Practice
  12. 6. Turbulent Flow
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Stability of Laminar Flow
    3. 6.3 Mean Motion and Fluctuations
    4. 6.4 Governing Equations for Turbulent Flow
    5. 6.5 Turbulent Boundary Layer Equations
    6. 6.6 Velocity Scale in Turbulent Boundary Layer
    7. 6.7 Shear Stress Model
    8. 6.8 Universal Velocity Distribution Law in Ducts for Large Reynolds Numbers
    9. 6.9 Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in a Pipe for Moderate Reynolds Numbers
    10. 6.10 Isotropic and Homogeneous Turbulence
      1. Problems for Practice
  13. 7. Compressible Flow
    1. 7.1 Introduction
      1. 7.1.1 Propagation of Infinitesimal Waves
      2. 7.1.2 Relation Between Stagnation and Static Properties
      3. 7.1.3 Various Regimes of Flow
    2. 7.2 Isentropic Flow Through Variable Area
    3. 7.3 Adiabatic Frictional Flow through Constant Area Duct—Fanno Flow
    4. 7.4 Isothermal Flow with Friction
    5. 7.5 Flow Through Smooth Constant Area Duct with Heat Transfer—Rayleigh Flow
    6. 7.6 Normal Shock Wave
      1. Review Questions
      2. Problems for Practice
  14. 8. Non-dimensional Analysis
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Units and Dimensions
    3. 8.3 Non-dimensional Groups
    4. 8.4 Non-dimensional Analysis
      1. 8.4.1 Rayleigh’s Method
      2. 8.4.2 Elimination of Fundamental Dimension One by One
      3. 8.4.3 Group Method
      4. 8.5 Similitude
        1. Review Questions
        2. Problems for Practice
  15. 9. Rotamachines
    1. 9.1 Introduction
      1. 9.1.1 Impact of Jets
      2. 9.1.2 Rotamachines
      3. 9.1.3 Similarity Relations
    2. 9.2 Pump
      1. 9.2.1 Centrifugal Pump
      2. 9.2.1 Terms Used in Centrifugal Pump
      3. 9.2.2 Effect of Vane Shape and Operating Variables
      4. 9.2.3 Cavitation, Minimum Speed of Operation and Priming in Pump
      5. 9.2.4 Performance Characteristics of Centrifugal Pump
    3. 9.3 Axial Flow Pump
    4. 9.4 Hydraulic or Water Turbine
      1. 9.4.1 Pelton Turbine
      2. 9.4.2 Francis Turbine
      3. 9.4.3 Kaplan Turbine
      4. 9.4.4 Performance Characteristic of Hydraulic Turbines
    5. 9.5 Governing of Turbines
      1. Review Questions
      2. Problems for Practice
  16. 10. Other Hydraulic Systems
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Reciprocating Pump
      1. 10.2.1 Inertia Effect on Pressure Head
      2. 10.2.2 Effects of Friction and Inertia on Pressure Head
      3. 10.2.3 Reduction of Discharge Fluctuation and Acceleration Head
    3. 10.3 Pressure Intensifier
    4. 10.4 Accumulator
    5. 10.5 Hydraulic Crane
    6. 10.6 Hydraulic Lift
    7. 10.7 Hydraulic Press
    8. 10.8 Hydraulic Coupling
    9. 10.9 Hydraulic Ram
    10. 10.10 Hydraulic Controls
      1. 10.10.1 Hydraulic Pump and Motor
      2. 10.10.2 Hydraulic Cylinders and Motors
      3. 10.10.3 Control Valves
      4. 10.10.4 Proportional Valves
      5. 10.10.5 Hydraulic Circuits Design and Analysis
        1. Review Questions
        2. Problems for Practice
  17. 11. Experimental Methods
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Measurement Techniques
    3. 11.3 Design of Experimental Set-up
      1. 11.3.1 Performance of Centrifugal Pump
      2. 11.3.2 Performance of Centrifugal Compressor
      3. 11.3.3 Flow Measurement in Pipe and Open Channels
        1. Review Problems
  18. Appendix A: Review of Mathematical Concepts
    1. A1 Vector Algebra, Calculus and Integrals
      1. A1.1 Vector Algebra
      2. A1.2 Vector Calculus
      3. A1.3 Vector Integrals
    2. A2 Orthogonal Coordinate Systems
    3. A3 Tensor Notation
    4. A4 Integration of Euler Equation
    5. A5 Conformal Mapping
  19. Appendix B: Properties of Standard Atmosphere
  20. Appendix C: Derivation of Von Karman Integral Equation
  21. Appendix D: Fluid Power Symbols
  22. Appendix E: Some Important Relations at a Glance
  23. Bibliography
  24. Notes
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Appendix A
  25. Copyright