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Finite Element Method with Applications in Engineering by T. L. Eldho, Y. M. Desai

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6.10 ANALYSES OF PLANE FRAMES AND GRIDS

Many civil engineering structures like buildings and bridges consist of frames and/or grids. In this section, finite element analysis procedures will be formulated for such structures. Generally, a plane frame is a series of slender members rigidly connected to each other such that the original angles made between elements at their joints remain unchanged from one element to another at the joints. In addition, the element centroids, as well as the applied loads, lie in a common plane. Since applied loads may have components along an element’s local x-axis, unlike beam element, a frame element may be subjected to flexural as well as axial effects.

A grid, on the other hand, is a structure on which loads ...

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