It is possible to derive mathematical equations governing the problem for most physical problems in nature. Generally, the governing equations can be classified into algebraic equations, ordinary differential equations (ODE), partial differential equations (PDE) and integral equations.

Many problems can be represented in the algebraic equation form, which can be generally expressed as

where *g* is a function, *x* and *y* are state variables and *θ* is a set of parameters. The equation is said to be linear if *x* and *y* appear linear in *g*, otherwise the equation is non-linear. Many engineering problems can be represented ...

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