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Film Technology in Post Production, 2nd Edition

Book Description

An easy to follow, quick reference introductory guide for beginning professionals and students in filmmaking and postproduction. It explains all film laboratory procedures in the context of the wide range of technology that is used by filmmakers, explaining what happens and why at every stage. A technical understanding of film processing and printing, telecine and laboratory and digital processes will help you get the best results for your film. The book is particularly useful for those who have come to film making from other media - video or digital.



The book is based on the author's own experience as a lab technician and technical film consultant and provides answers to many frequently asked questions. The different pathways for film production and postproduction are demonstrated as well as the function of the lab at each stage of the process. The complete range of services is offered, with particular emphasis on the often confusing requirements for super 16 and the blow up to 35mm, the intricacies of negative cutting to match a non-linear edit and the process of grading and regrading for the answer print.

This new edition includes:
* An update on all digital formats of image and sound
* Revision sections on Super 16, Super 35
* Additional information on syncing rushes at telecine and to digital images
* The latest telecine machines
* A new, clear and simple glossary

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
  7. FILM TECHNOLOGY IN CONTEXT
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ORIGINS OF FILM AND VIDEO
      1. Video
      2. Digital imaging
    3. FILM AND VIDEO: THE DIFFERENCES
      1. Intermittent movement
      2. Frame rate
      3. Resolution
      4. Contrast
      5. Aspect ratio
    4. FILM VERSUS VIDEO – OR FILM WITH VIDEO
    5. DIGITAL FILM
      1. Digital image capture
      2. Digital post production
      3. Digital cinema
  8. POST PRODUCTION PATHWAYS
    1. FILM VERSUS VIDEO PRODUCTION
      1. Image quality
      2. Production style
      3. Production costs
      4. Preservation
    2. TRADITIONAL SPROCKET EDIT, FILM FINISH
    3. NON-LINEAR EDIT, FILM FINISH
      1. Pos conform
    4. NON-LINEAR EDIT, VIDEO FINISH
      1. Flat or compressed grade
      2. Select negative and retransfer
    5. SUPERVISION
      1. Lab liaison
      2. Post production supervisor
    6. LAB ESTIMATES
      1. Negative processing, tests, push processing
      2. Extraction of takes, or preparation for telecine
      3. Work print (one-light or graded)
      4. Telecine transfer
      5. Negative logging
      6. Titles and optical effects
      7. Duplication
      8. Answer print
    7. INSURANCE, LIABILITY, TROUBLESHOOTING TESTS
      1. Laboratory liability
      2. Troubleshooting
  9. FILM STOCK
    1. 35 mm FILM
      1. Perforations
      2. Aspect ratio
    2. 16 mm FILM
      1. 16 mm
      2. Super 16
    3. TYPES OF COLOUR FILM STOCK
      1. Camera negative films
      2. Colour reversal films
      3. Print film
      4. Intermediate film stocks
    4. BLACK AND WHITE FILM STOCKS
      1. Black and white prints
      2. Black and white duplicating stocks
      3. Other black and white stocks
  10. FILM PROCESSING
    1. ADDITIVE AND SUBTRACTIVE COLOUR
      1. Colour vision: additive colour
      2. Subtractive colour mixing: filters and dyes
    2. COLOUR SPECIFICATION AND PERCEPTION
    3. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSION
    4. FILM EMULSION LAYERS
      1. Integral masking
    5. DEVELOPING THE IMAGE
      1. Black and white development
      2. Colour development
    6. THE PROCESSING SEQUENCE
      1. Backing removal
      2. Colour positive sound redeveloper
      3. Drying
    7. PROCESS CONTROL STANDARDS
      1. Tests and comparisons
    8. UNITS OF DENSITY
      1. Logarithmic scales
      2. Log E
      3. Density
    9. GAMMA
      1. Gamma in film systems
      2. Gamma in video images
      3. Gamma in digital images
    10. CONTRAST AND LATITUDE
    11. GRAININESS
    12. BLACK AND WHITE NEGATIVE
      1. Black and white processing
      2. Processing instructions
    13. PUSHING AND FLASHING
      1. Flashing
    14. CROSS-PROCESSING
    15. BLEACH BYPASS (NEGATIVE)
      1. Colour negative
      2. Intermediates
    16. ALTERNATIVE STYLES OF PRINT
      1. Bleach bypass and silver retention
      2. High-contrast print stocks
      3. Dye transfer prints
  11. FILM PRINTING
    1. THE FILM PRINTING MACHINE
      1. Contact printers
      2. Optical printers
    2. COLOUR CORRECTION IN PRINTERS
      1. Printer control
    3. FILM GRADING TECHNIQUES
    4. FILM GRADING FOR ANSWER PRINT
      1. Grading corrections
    5. LAD EXPOSURE AND GRADING LINE-UP
    6. FILM CLEANING
      1. Particle transfer rollers
      2. Ultrasonic cleaners
    7. CLEAN-UP PROCESSES
      1. Rewashing
      2. Hand cleaning
      3. Spotting
      4. Electronic solutions
    8. WET GATE PRINTING
      1. Limitations of wet gate printing
    9. WORK PRINTS: NEGATIVE REPORTS
    10. WORK PRINTS: SELECTING AND SCREENING
      1. Selected takes
      2. ‘One-light’ or graded work prints
      3. Grey-scale cards
    11. TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AT RUSHES
      1. Sparkle
      2. Negative scratches
      3. ‘Green’ negative
      4. Positive scratches
      5. Fogging
      6. Old negative stock
  12. NEGATIVE MATCHING
    1. KEYKODES
      1. Offset frames
    2. NEGATIVE CUTTING
    3. PREPARING FOR NEGATIVE CUTTING
      1. Traditional sprocket edit
      2. Negative cut from EDL
      3. Pos conform
      4. Print rushes, EDL and pos conform
      5. Select takes pos conform A mixed method
    4. CUTTING TO AN EDL
      1. Differences in terminology
    5. EXTRACTING SELECT NEGATIVE
      1. Pos conform
      2. Scanning lists
      3. Lock-off and change lists
    6. SPLICES
      1. Tape splices for work prints
      2. Cement splices for negative
      3. Polyester weld splices
    7. A- AND B-ROLLS
      1. Checkerboard cutting
      2. Fades and dissolves
      3. Handles
  13. LABORATORY PROCESSES
    1. DUPLICATION
      1. Reasons for duplication
    2. EMULSION GEOMETRY
      1. A-wind and B-wind raw stock
      2. A-type and B-type geometry
    3. SUPER 16: SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
      1. Optical or digital blow-up?
    4. MAKING THE BLOW-UP (1)
      1. Blow-up interpos, contact dupe neg
      2. Negative cutting for blow-up
    5. MAKING THE BLOW-UP (2)
      1. 16 mm contact interpos, blow-up dupe neg
      2. Direct blow-up print
      3. Titles and opticals
    6. SUPER 35
    7. OTHER FILM FORMATS
      1. Three-perf pull-down, 35 mm
      2. Two-perf pull-down (Multivision or Techniscope)
      3. Vistavision
      4. 65 mm and 70 mm
    8. FRAMELINE MASKING
      1. Reframing
      2. Repositioning
    9. OPTICAL EFFECTS PRINTERS
    10. OPTICAL EFFECTS
    11. ROSTRUM CAMERA
      1. Animation
      2. Rotoscoping
    12. TITLES
      1. Titles over live action
    13. PRINTING FROM BLACK AND WHITE
      1. Colour prints from black and white negative
    14. MIXING BLACK AND WHITE AND COLOUR FOOTAGE
      1. Black and white mixed with colour
      2. Black and white from colour
      3. Colour drain
    15. ARCHIVAL AND STOCK FOOTAGE
      1. Tri-separations
    16. TRAILERS
  14. SOUND TRANSFER, EDIT, MIX, SYNC
    1. THE FINAL MIX
      1. Print master
      2. Digital soundtracks
      3. M&E tracks
    2. THE OPTICAL SOUND NEGATIVE AND PRINT
      1. The projector
    3. ANALOGUE SOUNDTRACK PRINTS
      1. Stereo soundtracks
      2. Silver tracks
      3. High magenta and cyan tracks
      4. Black and white tracks
    4. SYNCING PICTURE AND SOUND NEGATIVES
      1. Syncing with the image
    5. ANALOGUE SOUNDTRACK QUALITY
      1. Compression and equalization
      2. Density and volume
      3. Loudness
      4. THX
    6. DIGITAL SOUNDTRACKS
      1. Dolby SR-D
      2. DTS
      3. SDDS
  15. GRADING, ANSWER PRINT, RELEASE PRINTS
    1. THE ANSWER PRINT
    2. RELEASE PRINTS
      1. Subtitles
    3. THE FILM PROJECTOR
    4. RELEASE PRINTS IN USE
      1. Print care
    5. FILM STORAGE AND PRESERVATION
      1. Preservation
    6. ARCHIVAL RESTORATION
      1. Shrinkage
      2. Fading
      3. Scratch and dirt removal
      4. Sound
      5. Digital restoration
  16. TELECINE TRANSFERS
    1. TELECINE MACHINES (1)
      1. Analogue or digital
      2. Image steadiness
      3. Illumination
      4. Colour correction
    2. TELECINE MACHINES (2)
      1. Flying spot
      2. CCD
    3. WHICH FORMAT: TAPE OR DISK?
      1. Analogue or digital
      2. Component or composite
      3. Sampling
      4. Applications
    4. FILM AND VIDEO FRAME RATES
      1. Transferring to PAL at 25 fps
      2. Film for NTSC
      3. Digital television – 24P
    5. VIDEO TRANSFERS: HYBRID FRAMES
      1. Transferring to PAL at 24 fps
      2. Transferring to NTSC
      3. Hybrid frames
    6. MATCHING FILM AND VIDEO FRAME COUNTS
      1. Pos conforming
    7. TIMECODE
      1. Timecode standards
      2. In-camera timecode
    8. LOGGING KEYKODES AND TIMECODES (1)
    9. LOGGING KEYKODES AND TIMECODES (2)
      1. Interrupted telecine transfers
    10. SYNCHRONIZING RUSHES (1)
      1. Syncing to film
      2. Syncing at telecine transfer
      3. Syncing after telecine transfer
    11. SYNCHRONIZING RUSHES (2)
      1. Timecode on film
      2. Syncing sound while digitizing
      3. Syncing for rushes screening
    12. FILM FOR TELECINE TRANSFER
      1. Camera negative
      2. Finished productions
    13. GRADING ON TELECINE: RUSHES TRANSFERS
      1. Flat or compressed transfer
    14. GRADING ON TELECINE: MASTERS
    15. MASKING FOR TV
      1. Safe area
      2. Standard TV
      3. Pan and scan or letterbox
      4. Super 35 and Super 16
    16. DIGITAL TELEVISION AND WIDESCREEN
      1. Widescreen (16 × 9)
      2. Widescreen for standard TV
  17. DIGITAL PROCESSES
    1. DIGITAL RESOLUTION
      1. Pixels
      2. Bit depth
    2. DIGITAL ORIGINATION
      1. Digital video
      2. Mixed origination
      3. 24P
    3. SCANNING AND RECORDING
      1. Scanning
      2. Recording
      3. Digital effects
    4. CALIBRATING THE FILM RECORDER
    5. DIGITAL GRADING
    6. DIGITAL EFFECTS FOR FILM
      1. Wire removal
      2. Image repair
      3. Eliminating camera movement
      4. Rotoscoping, cut and paste, set extension
      5. Colour manipulation
      6. Motion blur and grain
    7. KINE TRANSFERS: VIDEO TO FILM
      1. Film recorders
      2. Adapting the TV image for film
    8. DIGITAL CINEMA
  18. GLOSSARY AND INDEX