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Fiber Optic Video Transmission

Book Description

Fiber Optic Video Transmission: The Complete Guide is the only comprehensive reference to the techniques and hardware required to transmit video signals over optical fiber. As the broadcast industry moves to HDTV and enhanced television standards become the norm, fiber will become the medium of choice for video transmission, and this book is the essential guide to transmitting video over fiber optic cables.

From the most basic video signal to complex multi-channel high definition video, this book details the methods of encoding video signals (including AM, FM, and digital encoding), the advantages and disadvantages of all encoding methods, and the expected performance of each method. A discussion of the the fiber optic components - such as lasers, LEDs, detectors, connectors, and other components - that are best for video transmission applications is also included. A glossary of terms, appendices of standards and publications, and a complete index round out this comprehensive guide.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface
    1. About This Book
      1. Fiber Transmission Capacity versus Moore's Law
    2. Scope of This Book
    3. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter 1: The Intersection of Two Cornerstone Technologies
    1. From Analog to Digital
    2. Key Applications for Fiber Optic Video Transmission
      1. Broadcast: Digital Video and High Definition Video
        1. Figure 1.1 — High Definition Serial Digital Component Video Transmitter
        2. Figure 1.2 — Studio-to-Transmitter Link
    3. Broadband CATV Transport
      1. Figure 1.3 — CATV Video Distribution System
      2. Fiber-to-the-Home and Fiber-to-the-Curb
        1. Figure 1.4 — Fiber-to-the-Curb and Fiber-to-the-Home Systems
      3. High-resolution Imaging
        1. Table 1.1 — RGB Bandwidth and Screen Resolution
      4. Distance Learning (Teleclassrooms)
        1. Figure 1.5 — Distance Learning System Configuration
      5. Teleconferencing
    4. Chapter Summary
  8. Chapter 2: A Brief History of Video and Video Transmission
    1. Wired Transmission: The Telegraph
    2. Wireless Transmission: The Radio
      1. Figure 2.1 — DeForest's Audion Tube
    3. A Picture Is Worth 10,000 Words: Mechanical Television Systems
      1. Figure 2.2 — Nipkow's Scanning Disk
    4. Electronic Television Systems
      1. Figure 2.3 — Farnsworth's Image Dissector 14
    5. The Need for Television Standards
    6. Monochrome Television
      1. Figure 2.4 — Basic Monochrome TV Transmitter
      2. Figure 2.5 — Basic Monochrome TV Receiver
    7. Color Television
      1. Table 2.1 — Comparison of NTSC, PAL, and SECAM
    8. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 and DTV/HDTV
      1. Table 2.2 — Options for HDTV, DTV, and SDTV Standards
    9. Chapter Summary
  9. Chapter 3: A Brief History of Fiber Optics
    1. Early Developments in Light Transmission
    2. From Concept to Design
      1. Figure 3.1 — Equations for Snell's Law
      2. Figure 3.2 — Optical Fiber with Cladding
      3. Figure 3.3 — Wavelength Windows in Optical Fiber
    3. Fiber Optic Communications System
      1. Figure 3.4 — Basic Communications System
    4. Fiber Optic Components
      1. Figure 3.5 — Elements of a Fiber Optic Link
      2. Figure 3.6 — Cross-section of an Optical Fiber
    5. Applications for Fiber Optics
      1. Figure 3.7 — FM Video Links Used on Navy Vessels in the 1980s
      2. Figure 3.8 — Digital Video Link Used to Broadcast the 1994 Winter Olympics
      3. Figure 3.9 — Basic DWDM System Diagram
    6. Chapter Summary
  10. Chapter 4: Overview of Fiber Optic Transmission Methods
    1. Transmission Basics
      1. Figure 4.1 — Transmission Schemes
    2. Modulation Schemes
      1. Table 4.1 — AM, FM, and Digital Modulation
      2. Figure 4.2 — Common Modulation Schemes
    3. Video Quality Parameters
    4. Amplitude Modulation (AM)
      1. Figure 4.3 — AM System Transfer Function
    5. Frequency Modulation (FM)
      1. Figure 4.4 — FM System Receiver Response
    6. Digital Modulation
      1. Digital Basics
        1. Figure 4.5 — Typical Pulse Train
        2. Figure 4.6 — Parts of a Pulse
    7. Digital Video and Audio
      1. Uncompressed Digital Signals
        1. Figure 4.7 — Optical Tx Multiplexing and Sending 16 Digitized Video Signals
        2. Figure 4.8 — Optical Rx Receiving and Demultiplexing 16 Digitized Video Signals
      2. Compressed Digital Signals
    8. Comparison of Analog and Digital Video Signals
      1. Picture Quality versus System Noise in Analog and Digital Signals
        1. Figure 4.9 — Picture Quality versus System Noise in Analog AM Video Signals
        2. Figure 4.10 — Picture Quality versus System Noise in Digital Video Signals
        3. Figure 4.11 — FM Video Link versus AM Video Link
    9. Chapter Summary
  11. Chapter 5: Characteristics of Optical Fiber
    1. Principles of Operation
      1. Figure 5.1 — Total Internal Reflection
      2. Table 5.1 — Refractive Index and Propagation Times for Various Materials
    2. Bandwidth Potential
      1. Figure 5.2 — Single-mode Fiber Bandwidth
    3. Advantages of Optical Fiber
    4. Key Fiber Types
      1. Figure 5.3 — Popular Fiber Sizes
    5. Multimode Fiber
      1. Multimode Step-index Fiber
        1. Figure 5.4 — Multimode Step-index Fiber
      2. Multimode Graded-index Fiber
        1. Figure 5.5 — Multimode Graded-index Fiber
    6. Single-mode Fiber
      1. Figure 5.6 — Single-mode Fiber
    7. Fiber Characteristics
      1. Figure 5.7 — Comparison of Optical Fiber Types
      2. Table 5.2 — Typical Fiber Loss
      3. Table 5.3 — Typical Fiber Bandwidth
      4. Table 5.4 — Miscellaneous Fiber Parameters
    8. Optical Cables
      1. Table 5.5 — Properties of Cable Jacket Material
    9. Types of Fiber Optic Cables
      1. Figure 5.8 — Duplex Zipcord Cable Construction
      2. Figure 5.9 — Hybrid Fiber/Coax (HFC) Cable Construction
    10. Cable Environments
    11. Chapter Summary
  12. Chapter 6: Fiber Limits
    1. Fiber Nonlinearities
      1. Figure 6.1 — Silica Refractive Index versus Optical Power
      2. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering
      3. Stimulated Raman Scattering
        1. Figure 6.2 — 6 Channel DWDM Transmitted Optical Spectrum
        2. Figure 6.3 — SRS Effect on a 6 Channel DWDM Transmitted Optical Spectrum
      4. Four Wave Mixing
      5. Self-phase Modulation
    2. Figure 6.4 — Effects of SPM on a Pulse
      1. Cross-phase Modulation
    3. Summary of Fiber Nonlinearities
      1. SBS
      2. SRS
      3. FWM
      4. SPM
      5. XPM
    4. Dispersion
      1. Figure 6.5 — Modal Dispersion
    5. Chromatic Dispersion
      1. Figure 6.6 — Chromatic Dispersion
      2. Figure 6.7 — Refractive Index of Fused Silica
    6. Polarization Mode Dispersion
      1. Figure 6.8 — Polarization Mode Dispersion
    7. Calculating Dispersion
      1. Figure 6.9 — Single-mode Fiber Dispersion
    8. Dispersion Power Penalty
      1. Figure 6.10 — Receiver Sensitivity with No Fiber Dispersion
      2. Figure 6.11 — Receiver Sensitivity with Fiber Dispersion
      3. Figure 6.12 — MLM Laser Spectral Output
      4. Figure 6.13 — SLM Laser Spectral Output
      5. Figure 6.14 — Dispersion with a Normal DFB Laser
      6. Figure 6.15 — Dispersion with a Narrow DFB Laser
      7. Figure 6.16 — Dispersion with a FP Laser
      8. Figure 6.17 — Dispersion of Single-mode Fiber Types
    9. Laser Types to Counter Dispersion
    10. EDFAs
    11. Dispersion Compensation
      1. Figure 6.18 — DCM Using a Circulator
      2. Figure 6.19 — DCM Using Alternating NZ-DSF Fiber Types
    12. Dispersion Summary
    13. Chapter Summary
  13. Chapter 7: Electro-optic and Opto-electronic Devices
    1. Light Emitters
    2. Theory of Operation
    3. Light Emitter Performance Characteristics
    4. Spectral Characteristics
      1. Figure 7.1 — LED Optical Spectra
      2. Figure 7.2 — Laser Optical Spectra
    5. Light-emitting Diodes
      1. Figure 7.3 — Typical LED Behavior versus Temperature
      2. Figure 7.4 — Typical Packaged LEDs
    6. Analog LED Drive Circuits
      1. Figure 7.5 — Analog LED Drive Circuits
      2. Figure 7.6 — VCSEL Response to an Analog Drive Circuit Using Multimode Fiber
    7. Digital LED Drive Circuits
      1. Figure 7.7 — Digital LED Drive Circuits
      2. Figure 7.8 — LED Response to a Digital Modulation Signal
    8. Laser Diodes
      1. Figure 7.9 — Laser Construction
    9. Analog Laser Drive Circuits
      1. Figure 7.10 — Analog Laser Drive Circuits
    10. Predistortion Circuits
      1. Figure 7.11 — Analog Laser Response without Predistortion
      2. Figure 7.12 — Gain of the Predistortion Circuit
    11. Digital Laser Drive Circuits
      1. Figure 7.13 — Digital Laser Drive Circuits
    12. VCSELs
      1. Figure 7.14 — Basic VCSEL Structure
      2. Figure 7.15 — VCSEL Wafer
    13. Light Detectors
    14. Important Detector Parameters
      1. Capacitance
      2. Responsivity
        1. Figure 7.16 — Typical Spectral Response of Various Detector Materials
      3. Response Time
      4. Edge Effect
        1. Figure 7.17 — Edge Effect
      5. Dark Current
      6. Linearity and Backreflection
        1. Figure 7.18 — Low Backreflection Detector Alignment
        2. Figure 7.19 — Low Backreflection Photodiodes
      7. Noise
    15. PIN Photodiode
      1. Figure 7.20 — Cross-section and Operation of a PIN Photodiode
    16. Avalanche Photodiode
      1. Figure 7.21 — Cross-section and Operation of an APD
    17. Comparison of PIN Photodiodes and APDs
      1. Table 7.1 — Comparison of PINs and APDs
    18. Understanding Specifications
      1. Table 7.2 — Detector Performance Specifications
      2. Table 7.3 — Detector Absolute Maximum Ratings
      3. Figure 7.22 — Dark Current versus Temperature and Reverse Bias Voltage
    19. Chapter Summary
  14. Chapter 8: Basic Optical Components
    1. Optical Connector Basics
    2. Types of Fiber Optic Connectors
      1. Table 8.1 — Connector Types
    3. Care of Fiber Optic Connectors
    4. The Effects of High Optical Power
      1. Effects on Optical Connectors
      2. Figure 8.1 — Connector Damaged by High Optical Power
    5. The Fiber Fuse
      1. Figure 8.2 — Fiber Fuse Mechanism
      2. Figure 8.3 — Effect of a Fiber Fuse on a Single-mode Fiber Core
    6. Fiber Optic Connector Cleaning Technique
      1. Required Equipment and Technique
      2. Handling
    7. Splicing
      1. Fusion Splicing
        1. Figure 8.4 — Typical Fusion Splicer
    8. Optical Couplers and Splitters
      1. Table 8.2 — Typical Single-mode Fiber Insertion Losses
      2. Figure 8.5 — Star and Tee Couplers
      3. Figure 8.6 — Tee Network Configurations
      4. Figure 8.7 — Bidirectional WDM Application
    9. Understanding Specifications
      1. Table 8.3 — WDM Coupler Specifications
    10. Chapter Summary
  15. Chapter 9: Important Advanced Optical Concepts
    1. The Nature of Light
      1. Interference
        1. Figure 9.1 — Constructive Interference
        2. Figure 9.2 — Destructive Interference
      2. Polarization
        1. Figure 9.3 — Light Wave Showing E and B Vectors
    2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      1. Figure 9.4 — Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. Photons, Electrons, and Counting Statistics
      1. Figure 9.5 — Probability of a Given Photon Count from a Laser
    4. Backreflection
      1. Figure 9.6 — Generation of AM Noise by a Fabry-Perot Cavity
      2. Figure 9.7 — Backreflection in a Single Channel Broadband Analog Fiber Optic Link
      3. Figure 9.8 — Backreflection in a 10 Channel Broadband Analog Fiber Optic Link
    5. Relative Intensity Noise (RIN)
      1. Figure 9.9 — Fiber RIN
    6. Crosstalk
      1. Figure 9.10 — Characteristics of a Fused Fiber WDM
      2. Figure 9.11 — Rejection of the 1310 nm Channel Near 1550 nm
    7. Chapter Summary
  16. Chapter 10: Transmitters, Receivers, and Transceivers
    1. Basics of a Transmitter
      1. Figure 10.1 — Parts of a Fiber Optic Transmitter
      2. Figure 10.2 — Typical Fiber Optic Transmitter
    2. Basics of a Receiver
      1. Figure 10.3 — Parts of a Fiber Optic Receiver
      2. Figure 10.4 — Typical Fiber Optic Receiver
      3. Figure 10.5 — Optical Power Meter
    3. Basics of a Transceiver
      1. Figure 10.6 — Typical Fiber Optic Transceiver
    4. Understanding Specifications
      1. Table 10.1 — Typical Specifications for a Fiber Optic Transmitter
      2. Table 10.2 — Typical Specifications for a Fiber Optic Receiver
      3. Figure 10.7 — Transceiver Application Diagram
    5. Developing Specifications
      1. Table 10.3 — Fiber Optic System Checklist
    6. Chapter Summary
  17. Chapter 11: The Nature of Video Signals
    1. General Characteristics of all Video Formats
    2. NTSC
      1. Figure 11.1 — Interlaced Scanning
    3. Modern TV Systems
      1. NTSC/525 — The Advantages
      2. NTSC/525 — The Disadvantages
      3. PAL/625 — The Advantages
      4. PAL/625 — The Disadvantages
      5. SECAM/625 — The Advantages
      6. SECAM/625 — The Disadvantages
    4. NTSC, PAL, and SECAM Formats Compared
      1. Table 11.1 — Video Format IRE and Voltages
      2. Figure 11.2 — Composite Video Waveform
      3. Table 11.2 — Comparison of Video Format Field Frequencies
      4. Table 11.3 — Countries and Television Formats
    5. What Do the Specs Mean?
      1. Figure 11.3 — Typical NTSC Composite Test Signal
      2. Figure 11.4 — Detail of an NTSC Line
      3. Figure 11.5 — Detail of a Vertical Sync Mechanism for NTSC
      4. Figure 11.6 — Frequency Derivations in a Composite Video Signal 161
    6. Typical NTSC Test Signals
      1. Figure 11.7 — Composite Test Signal
      2. Figure 11.8 — Combination Test Signal
      3. Figure 11.9 — Example of Line Time Distortion
      4. Figure 11.10 — Field Time Distortion
      5. Figure 11.11 — Noisy Combination Test Signal
      6. Figure 11.12 — Standard Color Bar Pattern
    7. How to Adjust a Color Monitor
    8. Introduction to Digital Television (DTV)
      1. The Evolution from Analog to Digital
      2. Four Video Formats
        1. Table 11.4 — Classification of Four Video Formats
      3. Digitizing Composite Video
      4. Component Digital Video
        1. Figure 11.13 — Chrominance-Luminance Sampling
      5. Serializing and Deserializing
    9. Digitizing Video Signals
      1. JPEG, MPEG, and MPEG-2
      2. The Challenge of Compression
        1. Table 11.5 — Bit Rates for the Active Part of a Digital Video Signal
        2. Table 11.6 — MPEG-2 Profiles and Levels
      3. Layers and Scalability
      4. Video Bitstream
        1. Figure 11.14 — Macroblock Structures
      5. Temporal Compression
        1. Figure 11.15 — Typical Group of Pictures (GOP)
      6. Spatial Compression
        1. Figure 11.16 — Digital Video Encoder
        2. Figure 11.17 — DCT Coding and Quantization
        3. Figure 11.18 — An Uncompressed Image versus a Highly Compressed Image Showing Visible 8 x 8 Blocks
      7. Program Streams and Transport Streams
        1. Figure 11.19 — Audio and Video Multiplexing
        2. Figure 11.20 — MPEG-2 Transport Stream
      8. MPEG-4 and Future Directions
    10. Component Analog Video Formats
      1. Table 11.7 — Component Analog Video Formats
    11. Chapter Summary
  18. Chapter 12: Video Over Fiber Using AM Techniques
    1. Basics of AM
      1. Figure 12.1 — Fiber Optic AM Video Link
      2. Figure 12.2 — Sync Pulse Level AGC
    2. Linear Amplifiers and Noise Figure
    3. Amplifier Noise Calculation
      1. Figure 12.3 — Amplifier Noise Calculation
      2. Figure 12.4 — Noise Temperature, Noise Factor, and Noise Figure
    4. Amplifier Noise Calculation — Example 1
    5. Amplifier Noise Calculation — Example 2
    6. Amplifier Noise Calculation — Example 3
    7. Amplifier Noise Calculation — Example 4
      1. Figure 12.5 — Plot of SNR for Examples 1 through 4
      2. Figure 12.6 — Cascade of Three Amplifiers
    8. CNR and SNR
      1. Table 12.1 — Subjective Interpretation of CNR Measurements
      2. Figure 12.7 — CATV CNR as Displayed on a Spectrum Analyzer
      3. Table 12.2 — Subjective Interpretation of SNR Measurements
    9. Chapter Summary
  19. Chapter 13: Video Over Fiber Using FM Techniques
    1. Basics of FM
      1. FM General Equation
      2. Narrowband FM (NBFM)
      3. Wideband FM (WBFM)
      4. Carson's Bandwidth Rule
        1. Figure 13.1 — FM Bessel Functions
        2. Figure 13.2 — FM Sidebands
    2. The Advantages and Limitations of FM versus AM
      1. Figure 13.3 — Frequency Spectra of Video Modulation Schemes
    3. Single Channel FM Video Transmission
      1. Figure 13.4 — Single Channel FM Video Link
    4. Multichannel FM Video Transmission
      1. Figure 13.5 — A 4-Channel Sine Wave FM System
    5. Achievable Performance Levels
      1. Table 13.1 — Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) AM versus FM
      2. Table 13.2 — ß Improvement versus SNR
    6. FM Video Link Performance
      1. Figure 13.6 — FM Video Link
      2. Figure 13.7 — SNR versus Fiber Length
    7. Unconventional FM Modulators
      1. Figure 13.8 — Wideband FM Modulator
    8. Chapter Summary
  20. Chapter 14: Video Over Fiber Using Digital Techniques
    1. Basics of Digital Modulation
      1. Figure 14.1 — Fiber Optic Digital Video Receiver
    2. Digitized Video Formats and Data Rates
      1. Table 14.1 — Digitized Video Standards
      2. Figure 14.2 — Comparison of Copper Coax and Fiber Bandwidth
    3. Serial Data Transmission Formats and Standards
      1. Table 14.2 — Serial Digital Video Formats
      2. Table 14.3 — Signal Levels and Specifications for SMPTE 259M, 292M, and 310M
      3. Table 14.4 — SMPTE 259M
    4. Datacom versus Telecom Fiber Optic Links
      1. Table 14.5 — Effect of BER on Digital Video Formats
      2. Table 14.6 — Comparison of Telecom, Datacom, and Broadcast Requirements
    5. Wavelengths and Optics for Digitized Video
    6. Optical Fiber and Connector Types for Digitized Video
    7. Digitized Video Transmission Performance
      1. Figure 14.3 — Eye Pattern for 100 m, Copper Coax, 270 Mb/s.
      2. Figure 14.4 — Eye Pattern for 11,121 m, SM Fiber, 531 Mb/s.
    8. Compressed Digital Video
      1. Figure 14.5 — Example of Interframe Difference Analysis
    9. QAM Encoding
      1. Figure 14.6 — Bandwidth versus Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
    10. Chapter Summary
  21. Chapter 15: High Linearity CATV Fiber Optic Systems
    1. Figure 15.1 — Typical Light-to-Current Curve
    2. Fourier Synthesis
    3. Even and Odd Harmonics
      1. Figure 15.2 — Asymmetrical and Symmetrical Distortion
      2. Figure 15.3 — Even-order (Asymmetrical) Waveform Distortion
      3. Figure 15.4 — Odd-order (Symmetrical) Waveform Distortion
    4. CATV Lasers
      1. High Linearity Lasers
      2. Predistorted Lasers
    5. CSO and CTB
      1. Figure 15.5 — CATV Channel and Carriers
      2. Figure 15.6 — CATV Channel CSO
      3. Figure 15.7 — CATV Channel CTB
    6. CSO and CTB Beat Products
      1. Figure 15.8 — Number of CTB Beat Products
      2. Figure 15.9 — Number of CSO Beat Products
    7. Noise Power Ratio (NPR) Testing
      1. Figure 15.10 — NPR Testing — Input Signal
      2. Figure 15.11 — Output Filters
      3. Figure 15.12 — NPR Testing — Results
    8. External Modulators
    9. Lithium Niobate Amplitude and Phase Modulators
      1. Figure 15.13 — Basic LiNbO3 Optical Modulator
      2. Figure 15.14 — Operating Curves for a Typical Lithium Niobate Modulator
      3. Figure 15.15 — Simple Phase Modulator
    10. Digital versus Analog Operation
    11. CATV Detectors
    12. CATV Receivers
      1. Figure 15.16 — CATV Receiver
    13. CATV Transmission Systems
      1. Figure 15.17 — CATV Headend Block Diagram
    14. 1310 nm Systems
      1. Figure 15.18 — Typical Pre-Fiber CATV Architecture
      2. Figure 15.19 — Early Fiber Optic CATV Architecture
    15. Hybrid Architectures
      1. Figure 15.20 — Hybrid CATV Architecture
    16. 1550 nm Systems
      1. Figure 15.21 — Hybrid 1310/1550 nm CATV Architecture
    17. Limiting Factors to CATV VSB/AM System Performance
      1. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS)
        1. Figure 15.22 — SBS Effect
        2. Figure 15.23 — Optical Spectra of a VSB/AM Transmitter
      2. CSO Distortion
    18. Fiber-induced Relative Intensity Noise (RIN)
      1. Figure 15.24 — Fiber RIN at 1550 nm
    19. Backreflection
      1. Figure 15.25 — Effects of Backreflection on CNR
    20. Laser Clipping
      1. Figure 15.26 — Distortion Due to Laser Clipping versus OMD
    21. DWDM
    22. Understanding Specifications
      1. Typical Transmitter Specifications
        1. Table 15.1 — Typical CATV Tx Specifications
        2. Figure 15.27 — Typical CNR versus Receiver Optical Input and Channel Loading
        3. Figure 15.28 — Transmitter Level per Channel versus Number of Channels
      2. Typical Receiver Specifications
        1. Table 15.2 — Typical CATV Rx Specifications
        2. Figure 15.29 — End-to-end Link Gain
    23. CATV System Design Considerations
      1. Figure 15.30 — Typical CNR versus Receiver Optical Input and Channel Loading
    24. Equation for Converting dBm to Milliwatts
    25. Equation for Converting Milliwatts to dBm
      1. Figure 15.31 — Configuration 1, High-split (Fanout)
      2. Table 15.3 — Configuration 1, Scenario 1
      3. Table 15.4 — Configuration 1, Scenario 2
      4. Figure 15.32 — Configuration 2: Linear Bus
      5. Table 15.5 — Configuration 2, Scenario 1
    26. Chapter Summary
  22. Chapter 16: Advanced Optical Components
    1. Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifiers
      1. Figure 16.1 — Typical Packaged EDFA
      2. Figure 16.2 — Two-stage EDFA with Mid-stage Access
    2. Power Amplifier/Booster
    3. In-line Amplifier
    4. Preamplifier
      1. Figure 16.3 — Three Applications for an EDFA
    5. Loss Compensation in Optical Networks
      1. Figure 16.4 — Loss Compensation in Optical Networks
    6. Raman Amplifiers
      1. Figure 16.5 — Typical Raman Amplifier Configuration
      2. Figure 16.6 — Raman Amplifier — Transmitted Spectrum
      3. Figure 16.7 — Raman Amplifier — Received Spectrum
    7. Dense Wavelength-division Multiplexing (DWDM)
      1. Figure 16.8 — 0.4 nm Channel Spacing DWDM
    8. Red and Blue Bands
    9. Coarse Wavelength-division Multiplexing (CWDM)
      1. Figure 16.9 — Typical Packaged CWDM
      2. Figure 16.10 — CWDM Passband Characteristics for an 8 Channel Device
    10. Chapter Summary
  23. Chapter 17: End-to-End Systems
    1. Advanced Digital Modulation Techniques
      1. Figure 17.1 — Complex Amplitude and Phase Modulation
      2. Figure 17.2 — BPSK Modulation
      3. Figure 17.3 — Generation of Carrier, Carrier+π Signals, and a BPSK Waveform
      4. Figure 17.4 — 16 QAM Modulation
    2. Bit Error Rate (BER)
    3. Spectral Efficiency
      1. Figure 17.5 — Minimum Theoretical Eb/No versus Spectral Efficiency (C/W)
      2. Table 17.1 — Spectral Efficiency
      3. Figure 17.6 — BER versus SNR for Four Digital Formats
    4. Modal Noise
      1. Figure 17.7 — Uniform Light Across a Multimode Fiber
      2. Figure 17.8 — Speckle Pattern in a Multimode Fiber Showing Improper Alignment of the Optical Connector
      3. Table 17.2 — Coherence of Common Fiber Optic Light Sources
    5. Chapter Summary
  24. Chapter 18: The Future of Fiber Optic Video Transmission
    1. Moore's Law and Video Compression
    2. The Push for DTV
      1. The Frequency Allocation Chart
        1. Figure 18.1 — Simplified U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart
      2. Television Channel Frequency Allocations
        1. Table 18.1 — Frequency Allocations for U.S. TV Channels 2 through 69
    3. Video Transmission Over Fiber Optic Legacy Systems
    4. Video on Demand (VOD)
      1. Figure 18.2 — Architecture for a VOD Network
    5. Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
      1. Figure 18.3 — Passive Optical Network in FTTH Application
    6. Merging Television and Computer Video Standards
    7. Standards
    8. Chapter Summary
  25. Appendix A: Glossary of Terms
  26. Appendix B: Bibliography
  27. Appendix C: Fiber Optic Symbols
    1. Military Symbols
    2. Common Cable Television Symbols
  28. Appendix D: Television Standards
    1. Broadcast Standards: NTSC, PAL, SECAM
    2. NTSC
      1. RS-250C
      2. RS-330
    3. PAL/SECAM
      1. PAL
      2. PAL-M
      3. PAL-N
      4. SECAM
      5. SECAM-V
      6. SECAM-H
        1. Table D.1 — ITU-R System Specifications for PAL and SECAM
    4. Component Analog Video (CAV)
      1. Betacam
      2. RGB/GRB
      3. MII
      4. SMPTE/EBU N10
      5. S-Video
    5. CCTV Video Standards
      1. RS-170
      2. RS-343/RS-343A
    6. ITU-R and ITU-T Recommendations
      1. Analog Signals
      2. Digital Signals
    7. SMPTE Standards
      1. Analog Signals
      2. Digital Signals
  29. Appendix E: Societies, Conference Sponsors, and Trade Journals
    1. Societies and Conference Sponsors
    2. Fiber Optic Trade Journals
    3. Video Trade Journals
  30. Appendix F: General Reference Material
    1. Concerning Numbers
      1. Table F.1 — Names and Symbols for Metric Prefixes
    2. Constants
    3. Conversion Factors
      1. Table F.2 — Conversion Factors
  31. Appendix G: Optical and RF Conversions
    1. Table G.1 — Optical dBm to Optical mW Conversion
    2. Table G.2 — Optical mW to Optical dBm Conversion
    3. Table G.3 — Optical dB to% Change
    4. The Decibel
    5. Power Conversions
    6. Impedance Mismatch
    7. Conversion Formulae
      1. Table G.4 — Units to dBmV and dBµV
      2. Table G.5 — Units to V, P, and dBm
      3. Table G.6 — Units to dBmV for Impedance
  32. Index