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Fiber Optic Communications: Fundamentals and Applications

Book Description

Fiber-optic communication systems have advanced dramatically over the last four decades, since the era of copper cables, resulting in low-cost and high-bandwidth transmission. Fiber optics is now the backbone of the internet and long-distance telecommunication. Without it we would not enjoy the benefits of high-speed internet, or low-rate international telephone calls.

This book introduces the basic concepts of fiber-optic communication in a pedagogical way. The important mathematical results are derived by first principles rather than citing research articles. In addition, physical interpretations and real-world analogies are provided to help students grasp the fundamental concepts.

Key Features:

  • Lucid explanation of key topics such as fibers, lasers, and photodetectors.

  • Includes recent developments such as coherent communication and digital signal processing.

  • Comprehensive treatment of fiber nonlinear transmission.

  • Worked examples, exercises, and answers.

  • Accompanying website with PowerPoint slides and numerical experiments in MATLAB.

  • Intended primarily for senior undergraduates and graduates studying fiber-optic communications, the book is also suitable as a professional resource for researchers working in the field of fiber-optic communications.

    Table of Contents

    1. Title Page
    2. Copyright
    3. Dedication
    4. Preface
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. Chapter 1: Electromagnetics and Optics
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Intensity
      3. 1.3 Ampere's Law and Magnetic Field Intensity
      4. 1.4 Faraday's Law
      5. 1.5 Maxwell's Equations
      6. 1.6 1-Dimensional Wave Equation
      7. 1.7 Power Flow and Poynting Vector
      8. 1.8 3-Dimensional Wave Equation
      9. 1.9 Reflection and Refraction
      10. 1.10 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity
      11. 1.11 Polarization of Light
      12. Exercises
      13. Further Reading
      14. References
    7. Chapter 2: Optical Fiber Transmission
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Fiber Structure
      3. 2.3 Ray Propagation in Fibers
      4. 2.4 Modes of a Step-Index Optical Fiber*
      5. 2.5 Pulse Propagation in Single-Mode Fibers
      6. 2.6 Comparison between Multi-Mode and Single-Mode Fibers
      7. 2.7 Single-Mode Fiber Design Considerations
      8. 2.8 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers (DCFs)
      9. 2.9 Additional Examples
      10. Exercises
      11. Further Reading
      12. References
    8. Chapter 3: Lasers
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Basic Concepts
      3. 3.3 Conditions for Laser Oscillations
      4. 3.4 Laser Examples
      5. 3.5 Wave–Particle Duality
      6. 3.6 Laser Rate Equations
      7. 3.7 Review of Semiconductor Physics
      8. 3.8 Semiconductor Laser Diode
      9. 3.9 Additional Examples
      10. Exercises
      11. Further Reading
      12. References
    9. Chapter 4: Optical Modulators and Modulation Schemes
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Line Coder
      3. 4.3 Pulse Shaping
      4. 4.4 Power Spectral Density
      5. 4.5 Digital Modulation Schemes
      6. 4.6 Optical Modulators
      7. 4.7 Optical Realization of Modulation Schemes
      8. 4.8 Partial Response Signals*
      9. 4.9 Multi-Level Signaling*
      10. 4.10 Additional Examples
      11. Exercises
      12. Further Reading
      13. References
    10. Chapter 5: Optical Receivers
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Photodetector Performance Characteristics
      3. 5.3 Common Types of Photodetectors
      4. 5.4 Direct Detection Receivers
      5. 5.5 Receiver Noise
      6. 5.6 Coherent Receivers
      7. Exercises
      8. References
    11. Chapter 6: Optical Amplifiers
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Optical Amplifier Model
      3. 6.3 Amplified Spontaneous Emission in Two-Level Systems
      4. 6.4 Low-Pass Representation of ASE Noise
      5. 6.5 System Impact of ASE
      6. 6.6 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers
      7. 6.7 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
      8. 6.8 Raman Amplifiers
      9. 6.9 Additional Examples
      10. Exercises
      11. Further Reading
      12. References
    12. Chapter 7: Transmission System Design
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Fiber Loss-Induced Limitations
      3. 7.3 Dispersion-Induced Limitations
      4. 7.4 ASE-Induced Limitations
      5. 7.5 Additional Examples
      6. Exercises
      7. Further Reading
      8. References
    13. Chapter 8: Performance Analysis
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Optimum Binary Receiver for Coherent Systems
      3. 8.3 Homodyne Receivers
      4. 8.4 Heterodyne Receivers
      5. 8.5 Direct Detection
      6. 8.6 Additional Examples
      7. Exercises
      8. References
    14. Chapter 9: Channel Multiplexing Techniques
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Polarization-Division Multiplexing
      3. 9.3 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing
      4. 9.4 OFDM
      5. 9.5 Time-Division Multiplexing
      6. 9.6 Additional Examples
      7. Exercises
      8. References
    15. Chapter 10: Nonlinear Effects in Fibers
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Origin of Linear and Nonlinear Refractive Indices
      3. 10.3 Fiber Dispersion
      4. 10.4 Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
      5. 10.5 Self-Phase Modulation
      6. 10.6 Combined Effect of Dispersion and SPM
      7. 10.7 Interchannel Nonlinear Effects
      8. 10.8 Intrachannel Nonlinear Impairments
      9. 10.9 Theory of Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
      10. 10.10 Nonlinear Phase Noise
      11. 10.11 Stimulated Raman Scattering
      12. 10.12 Additional Examples
      13. Exercises
      14. Further Reading
      15. References
    16. Chapter 11: Digital Signal Processing
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Coherent Receiver
      3. 11.3 Laser Phase Noise
      4. 11.4 IF Estimation and Compensation
      5. 11.5 Phase Estimation and Compensation
      6. 11.6 <i xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:ibooks="http://vocabulary.itunes.apple.com/rdf/ibooks/vocabulary-extensions-1.0">CD</i> Equalization Equalization
      7. 11.7 Polarization Mode Dispersion Equalization
      8. 11.8 Digital Back Propagation
      9. 11.9 Additional Examples
      10. Exercises
      11. Further Reading
      12. References
    17. Appendix A
      1. References
    18. Appendix B
    19. Index
    20. End User License Agreement