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Femtocells: Opportunities and Challenges for Business and Technology

Book Description

Femtocells are low-power wireless access points used in the home and office. They operate in licensed spectrum to connect standard mobile phones (WCDMA, LTE, WiMAX, CDMA and GSM) and other mobile devices to a mobile operator's network via standard broadband internet connections. This technology is of high interest for mobile operators and for millions of users who will benefit from enhanced access to mobile broadband services. Femtocells outlines how wireless access points can be used by mobile operators to provide high-speed wireless access, enhancing coverage and capacity and delivering entirely new services, while maximising the benefits of licensed spectrum. The book examines the market, exploring commercial and technical factors which are critical in the initial deployment and long-term success of femtocells. Business, standards and regulatory aspects are also considered to provide a complete but concise overview.

  • One of the first authoritative texts to concentrate on femtocells

  • Written by expert authors from industry including leading analysts, femtocell and system vendors

  • Covers both technology and business aspects in detail

  • Provides overview of the relevant standards across WCDMA, LTE, CDMA, WiMAX and GSM air interfaces

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. About the Authors
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. Abbreviations
  11. List of Figures
  12. List of Tables
  13. 1: Introduction to Femtocells
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Why Femtocells? The Market Context
    3. 1.3 The Nature of Mobile Broadband Demand
    4. 1.4 What is a Femtocell?
    5. 1.5 Applications for Femtocells
    6. 1.6 What a Femtocell is not
    7. 1.7 The Importance of ‘Zero-Touch’
    8. 1.8 User Benefits
    9. 1.9 Operator Motivations and Economic Impact
    10. 1.10 Operator Responses
    11. 1.11 Challenges
    12. 1.12 Chapter Overview
  14. 2: Small Cell Background and Success Factors
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Small Cell Motivations
    3. 2.3 Other Small-Cell Systems
    4. 2.4 The Small-Cell Landscape
    5. 2.5 Emergence of the Femtocell – Critical Success Factors
    6. 2.6 Conclusions
  15. 3: Market Issues for Femtocells
    1. 3.1 Key Benefits of a Femtocell from Market Perspective
    2. 3.2 Key Primers
    3. 3.3 Key Market Challenges
    4. 3.4 Business Cases for Femtocells
    5. 3.5 Air Interface Choices
    6. 3.6 Product Feature Sets
    7. 3.7 Additional Considerations
    8. 3.8 Adoption Forecasts and Volumes
    9. 3.9 Conclusions
  16. 4: Radio Issues for Femtocells
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Spectrum Scenarios
    3. 4.3 Propagation in Femtocell Environments
    4. 4.4 Coverage
    5. 4.5 Downlink Interference
    6. 4.6 Interference Challenges and Mitigations
    7. 4.7 Femtocell-to-Femtocell Interference
    8. 4.8 System-Level Performance
    9. 4.9 RF Specifications in WCDMA
    10. 4.10 Health and Safety Concerns
    11. 4.11 Conclusions
  17. 5: Femtocell Networks and Architectures
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Challenges
    3. 5.3 Requirements
    4. 5.4 Femto Architectures and Interfaces
    5. 5.5 Key Architectural Choices
    6. 5.6 Other Important Femto Solution Aspects
    7. 5.7 UMTS Femtos
    8. 5.8 CDMA
    9. 5.9 WiMAX
    10. 5.10 GSM
    11. 5.11 LTE
    12. 5.12 Conclusions
  18. 6: Femtocell Management
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Femtocell FCAPS Requirements
    3. 6.3 Broadband Forum Auto-Configuration Architecture and Framework
    4. 6.4 Auto-Configuration Data Organisation
    5. 6.5 CPE WAN Management Protocol Overview
    6. 6.6 FAP Service Data Model
    7. 6.7 DOCSIS OSS Architecture and Framework
    8. 6.8 Conclusions
  19. 7: Femtocell Security
    1. 7.1 Why is Security Important?
    2. 7.2 The Threat Model
    3. 7.3 Countering the Threats
    4. 7.4 Conclusions
  20. 8: Femtocell Standards and Industry Groups
    1. 8.1 The Importance of Standards
    2. 8.2 GSM
    3. 8.3 WCDMA
    4. 8.4 TD-SCDMA
    5. 8.5 LTE
    6. 8.6 CDMA
    7. 8.7 Mobile WiMAX
    8. 8.8 The Femto Forum
    9. 8.9 The Broadband Forum
    10. 8.10 GSMA
    11. 8.11 Conclusions
  21. 9: Femtocell Regulation
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Regulatory Benefits of Femtocells
    3. 9.3 Spectrum Efficiency
    4. 9.4 Economic Efficiency
    5. 9.5 Enabling Competition
    6. 9.6 Broadening Access to Services
    7. 9.7 Enabling Innovation
    8. 9.8 Environmental Goals
    9. 9.9 Spectrum Licensing Issues
    10. 9.10 Location
    11. 9.11 Authentication
    12. 9.12 Emergency Calls
    13. 9.13 Lawful Interception and Local IP Access
    14. 9.14 Backhaul Challenges
    15. 9.15 Mobile Termination Rates
    16. 9.16 Competition Concerns
    17. 9.17 Equipment Approvals
    18. 9.18 Examples of Femtocell Regulations
    19. 9.19 Conclusions
  22. 10: Femtocell Implementation Considerations
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Signal Processing
    3. 10.3 Location
    4. 10.4 Frequency and Timing Control
    5. 10.5 Protocol Implementation
    6. 10.6 RF Implementation
    7. 10.7 System Design and Cost
    8. 10.8 Mobile Device Challenges and Opportunities
    9. 10.9 Conclusions
  23. 11: Business and Service Options for Femtocells
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Ways of being a Femtocell Operator
    3. 11.3 Femtocells for Fixed-Line Operators
    4. 11.4 Types of Femtocell Service
    5. 11.5 Service Examples
    6. 11.6 Service Enablers
    7. 11.7 Stages of Femtocell Service Introduction
    8. 11.8 Conclusions
  24. 12: Summary: The Status and Future of Femtocells
    1. 12.1 Summary
    2. 12.2 Potential Future Femtocell Landscape
    3. 12.3 Concluding Remarks
  25. References
  26. Further Reading
  27. Appendix: A Brief Guide to Units and Spectrum
  28. Index