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Female Entrepreneurship in East and South-East Asia

Book Description

This detailed study of female entrepreneurship in Asia examines the high economic growth that is increasingly driven by market-oriented economic reforms favouring entrepreneurship. There is a higher awareness by women of their political and socio-economic rights and recognition by society at large of social legitimacy of women pursuing business activities in their own right. This book assesses socio-cultural and economic factors influencing female entrepreneurship in Asia as well as the process and the tools and challenges that accompany it.

  • Opportunity to acquire knowledge on the socio-economic roles played by women as entrepreneurs in the region
  • Description and analysis of the issue in countries at different stages of economic development and with different socio-economic and cultural environment
  • A broad approach encompassing historical, political, sociological, economics and businesses-related aspects of female entrepreneurship

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of tables
  6. About the author
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. List of acronyms
  9. Preface
  10. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. Structure of this book
    2. An uncertain and zigzagging journey
    3. A fragmented and complex image of women at home and at work
  11. Chapter 2: The rising tide of entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. The growing importance of entrepreneurship in economic development
    3. The growing legitimacy of entrepreneurship
    4. The changing roles and status of women in the business system
    5. The specific role of women entrepreneurs
    6. Progress amid uncertainties in Japan and Korea
    7. Entrepreneurship as key to future development in Vietnam and Malaysia
  12. Chapter 3: Historical and current socio-political and economic context of female entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. A constant struggle under changing social norms and economic regimes
    3. Female entrepreneurship in its historical socio-economic and political context
    4. From entrepreneurs to glorified housewife status again
    5. Korean women in a Confucian developmental state
    6. The growth of entrepreneurship in a socialist state
    7. A new economic policy to overcome the sequels of colonialism
  13. Chapter 4: Evolution of the concept of female entrepreneurship and the reality of women-owned businesses
    1. Introduction
    2. Gradual changes in the perception of female entrepreneurship
    3. De-housewifization and entrepreneurship
    4. Compressed modernity and entrepreneurship in Asia
    5. Towards a contingent convergence with the West?
    6. Towards the development of a ‘free agent’ society in Japan and Korea
    7. Steady but unspectacular rise of Japanese women entrepreneurs
    8. A rapid increase of Korean women businesses
    9. A slow enlargement of business activities in Malaysia
    10. A strong focus on trading in a fast-growing Vietnam
    11. The internet as a vehicle for female entrepreneurship development
    12. But a persistent overall weakness in ICT-related business
    13. A need for enlarging and upgrading business capabilities in competitive markets
    14. The rise of necessity entrepreneurs
  14. Chapter 5: The institutional environment of female entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. A level field for women entrepreneurs?
    3. Asian women in politics
    4. A reinforcement of the regulatory environment
    5. Influence of a gendered environment on laws and regulations
    6. The influence of non-business-related regulations
    7. The need for clear arrangements and guidelines
    8. The need for a safety net for necessity entrepreneurs
    9. Childcare and entrepreneurship
    10. The role of women’s organizations
  15. Chapter 6: Women in the labor market
    1. Introduction
    2. The relationship between occupation and entrepreneurship
    3. Access to education and networking
    4. Japanese women in the labor market: the slow increase of female managers
    5. Steady but slow progress on the labor market of Malaysian women
    6. High labor participation in a changing business environment
    7. A proactive government and a still- gendered labor market
    8. Increase of women’s atypical employment
    9. The consequence of the M-shaped curve for entrepreneurship
    10. Glass ceilings and entrepreneurship
  16. Chapter 7: Public policy supporting female entrepreneurship
    1. Introduction
    2. A growing and enlarging array of policies
    3. A decentralized policy with little direct public support in Japan
    4. A proactive policy centered on ICT in Korea
    5. A comprehensive policy to upgrade the technical capabilities of women entrepreneurs
    6. An expected growing role of women entrepreneurs in the development of the private sector
    7. Assessment of public policy
    8. The limits of free-for-all systems
  17. Chapter 8: Results of the field survey
    1. Results related to the first category of respondents
    2. Results covering the two categories of respondents
  18. Chapter 9: Conclusions
  19. Appendix: profile of the respondents
  20. Index