You are previewing Fatigue of Materials, Second Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Fatigue of Materials, Second Edition

Book Description

Written by a leading researcher in the field, this revised and updated second edition of a highly successful book provides an authoritative, comprehensive and unified treatment of the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue in metals, non-metals and composites. The author discusses the principles of cyclic deformation, crack initiation and crack growth by fatigue, covering both microscopic and continuum aspects. The book begins with discussions of cyclic deformation and fatigue crack initiation in monocrystalline and polycrystalline ductile alloys as well as in brittle and semi-/non-crystalline solids. Total life and damage-tolerant approaches are then introduced in metals, non-metals and composites followed by more advanced topics. The book includes an extensive bibliography and a problem set for each chapter, together with worked-out example problems and case studies. This will be an important reference for anyone studying fracture and fatigue in materials science and engineering, mechanical, civil, nuclear and aerospace engineering, and biomechanics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the second edition
  7. Preface to the first edition
  8. 1 Introduction and overview
    1. 1.1 Historical background and overview
      1. 1.1.1 Case study: Fatigue and the Comet airplane
    2. 1.2 Different approaches to fatigue
      1. 1.2.1 Total-life approaches
      2. 1.2.2 Defect-tolerant approach
      3. 1.2.3 A comparison of different approaches
      4. 1.2.4 ‘Safe-life’ and ‘fail-safe’ concepts
      5. 1.2.5 Case study: Retirement for cause
    3. 1.3 The need for a mechanistic basis
    4. 1.4 Continuum mechanics
      1. 1.4.1 Elements of linear elasticity
      2. 1.4.2 Stress invariants
      3. 1.4.3 Elements of plasticity
      4. 1.4.4 Elements of linear viscoelasticity
      5. 1.4.5 Viscoplasticity and viscous creep
    5. 1.5 Deformation of ductile single crystals
      1. 1.5.1 Resolved shear stress and shear strain
      2. Exercises
  9. Part One: Cyclic Deformation and Fatigue Crack Initiation
    1. 2 Cyclic deformation in ductile single crystals
      1. 2.1 Cyclic strain hardening in single crystals
      2. 2.2 Cyclic saturation in single crystals
        1. 2.2.1 Monotonic versus cyclic plastic strains
      3. 2.3 Instabilities in cyclic hardening
        1. 2.3.1 Example problem: Identification of active slip systems
        2. 2.3.2 Formation of dislocation veins
        3. 2.3.3 Fundamental length scales for the vein structure
      4. 2.4 Deformation along persistent slip bands
      5. 2.5 Dislocation structure of PSBs
        1. 2.5.1 Composite model
        2. 2.5.2 Example problem: Dislocation dipoles and cyclic deformation
      6. 2.6 A constitutive model for the inelastic behavior of PSBs
        1. 2.6.1 General features
        2. 2.6.2 Hardening in the PSBs
        3. 2.6.3 Hardening at sites of PSB intersection with the free surface
        4. 2.6.4 Unloading and reloading
        5. 2.6.5 Vacancy generation
      7. 2.7 Formation of PSBs
        1. 2.7.1 Electron microscopy observations
        2. 2.7.2 Static or energetic models
        3. 2.7.3 Dynamic models of self-organized dislocation structures
      8. 2.8 Formation of labyrinth and cell structures
        1. 2.8.1 Example problem: Multiple slip
      9. 2.9 Effects of crystal orientation and multiple slip
      10. 2.10 Case study: A commercial FCC alloy crystal
      11. 2.11 Monotonic versus cyclic deformation in FCC crystals
      12. 2.12 Cyclic deformation in BCC single crystals
        1. 2.12.1 Shape changes in fatigued BCC crystals
      13. 2.13 Cyclic deformation in HCP single crystals
        1. 2.13.1 Basic characteristics of Ti single crystals
        2. 2.13.2 Cyclic deformation of Ti single crystals
        3. Exercises
    2. 3 Cyclic deformation in polycrystalline ductile solids
      1. 3.1 Effects of grain boundaries and multiple slip
        1. 3.1.1 Monocrystalline versus polycrystalline FCC metals
        2. 3.1.2 Effects of texture
      2. 3.2 Cyclic deformation of FCC bicrystals
        1. 3.2.1 Example problem: Number of independent slip systems
      3. 3.3 Cyclic hardening and softening in polycrystals
      4. 3.4 Effects of alloying, cross slip and stacking fault energy
      5. 3.5 Effects of precipitation
      6. 3.6 The Bauschinger effect
        1. 3.6.1 Terminology
        2. 3.6.2 Mechanisms
      7. 3.7 Shakedown
      8. 3.8 Continuum models for uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue
        1. 3.8.1 Parallel sub-element model
        2. 3.8.2 Field of work hardening moduli
        3. 3.8.3 Two-surface models for cyclic plasticity
        4. 3.8.4 Other approaches
      9. 3.9 Cyclic creep or ratchetting
      10. 3.10 Metal-matrix composites subjected to thermal cycling
        1. 3.10.1 Thermoelastic deformation
        2. 3.10.2 Characteristic temperatures for thermal fatigue
        3. 3.10.3 Plastic strain accumulation during thermal cycling
        4. 3.10.4 Effects of matrix strain hardening
        5. 3.10.5 Example problem: Critical temperatures for thermal fatigue in a metal-matrix composite
      11. 3.11 Layered composites subjected to thermal cycling
        1. 3.11.1 Thermoelastic deformation of a bilayer
        2. 3.11.2 Thin-film limit: the Stoney formula
        3. 3.11.3 Characteristic temperatures for thermal fatigue
        4. Exercises
    3. 4 Fatigue crack initiation in ductile solids
      1. 4.1 Surface roughness and fatigue crack initiation
        1. 4.1.1 Earlier observations and viewpoints
        2. 4.1.2 Electron microscopy observations
      2. 4.2 Vacancy-dipole models
      3. 4.3 Crack initiation along PSBs
      4. 4.4 Role of surfaces in crack initiation
      5. 4.5 Computational models for crack initiation
        1. 4.5.1 Vacancy diffusion
        2. 4.5.2 Numerical simulations
        3. 4.5.3 Example problem: Effects of vacancies
      6. 4.6 Environmental effects on crack initiation
      7. 4.7 Kinematic irreversibility of cyclic slip
      8. 4.8 Crack initiation along grain and twin boundaries
      9. 4.9 Crack initiation in commercial alloys
        1. 4.9.1 Crack initiation near inclusions and pores
        2. 4.9.2 Micromechanical models
      10. 4.10 Environmental effects in commercial alloys
      11. 4.11 Crack initiation at stress concentrations
        1. 4.11.1 Crack initiation under far-field cyclic compression
        2. Exercises
    4. 5 Cyclic deformation and crack initiation in brittle solids
      1. 5.1 Degrees of brittleness
      2. 5.2 Modes of cyclic deformation in brittle solids
      3. 5.3 Highly brittle solids
        1. 5.3.1 Mechanisms
        2. 5.3.2 Constitutive models
        3. 5.3.3 On possible effects of cyclic loading
        4. 5.3.4 Elevated temperature behavior
      4. 5.4 Semi-brittle solids
        1. 5.4.1 Crack nucleation by dislocation pile-up
        2. 5.4.2 Example problem: Cottrell mechanism for sessile dislocation formation
        3. 5.4.3 Cyclic deformation
      5. 5.5 Transformation-toughened ceramics
        1. 5.5.1 Phenomenology
        2. 5.5.2 Constitutive models
      6. 5.6 Fatigue crack initiation under far-field cyclic compression
        1. 5.6.1 Example problem: Crack initiation under far-field cyclic compression
        2. Exercises
    5. 6 Cyclic deformation and crack initiation in noncrystalline solids
      1. 6.1 Deformation features of semi-/noncrystalline solids
        1. 6.1.1 Basic deformation characteristics
        2. 6.1.2 Crazing and shear banding
        3. 6.1.3 Cyclic deformation: crystalline versus noncrystalline materials
      2. 6.2 Cyclic stress-strain response
        1. 6.2.1 Cyclic softening
        2. 6.2.2 Thermal effects
        3. 6.2.3 Example problem: Hysteretic heating
        4. 6.2.4 Experimental observations of temperature rise
        5. 6.2.5 Effects of failure modes
      3. 6.3 Fatigue crack initiation at stress concentrations
      4. 6.4 Case study: Compression fatigue in total knee replacements
        1. Exercises
  10. Part Two: Total-Life Approaches
    1. 7 Stress-life approach
      1. 7.1 The fatigue limit
      2. 7.2 Mean stress effects on fatigue life
      3. 7.3 Cumulative damage
      4. 7.4 Effects of surface treatments
      5. 7.5 Statistical considerations
      6. 7.6 Practical applications
        1. 7.6.1 Example problem: Effects of surface treatments
        2. 7.6.2 Case study: HCF in aircraft turbine engines
      7. 7.7 Stress–life response of polymers
        1. 7.7.1 General characterization
        2. 7.7.2 Mechanisms
      8. 7.8 Fatigue of organic composites
        1. 7.8.1 Discontinuously reinforced composites
        2. 7.8.2 Continuous-fiber composites
      9. 7.9 Effects of stress concentrations
        1. 7.9.1 Fully reversed cyclic loading
        2. 7.9.2 Combined effects of notches and mean stresses
        3. 7.9.3 Nonpropagating tensile fatigue cracks
        4. 7.9.4 Example problem: Effects of notches
      10. 7.10 Multiaxial cyclic stresses
        1. 7.10.1 Proportional and nonproportional loading
        2. 7.10.2 Effective stresses in multiaxial fatigue loading
        3. 7.10.3 Stress-life approach for tension and torsion
        4. 7.10.4 The critical plane approach
        5. Exercises
    2. 8 Strain–life approach
      1. 8.1 Strain-based approach to total life
        1. 8.1.1 Separation of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue lives
        2. 8.1.2 Transition life
        3. 8.1.3 Example problem: Thermal fatigue life of a metal-matrix composite
      2. 8.2 Local strain approach for notched members
        1. 8.2.1 Neuber analysis
      3. 8.3 Variable amplitude cyclic strains and cycle counting
        1. 8.3.1 Example problem: Cycle counting
      4. 8.4 Multiaxial fatigue
        1. 8.4.1 Measures of effective strain
        2. 8.4.2 Case study: Critical planes of failure
        3. 8.4.3 Different cracking patterns in multiaxial fatigue
        4. 8.4.4 Example problem: Critical planes of failure in multiaxial loading
      5. 8.5 Out-of-phase loading
        1. Exercises
  11. Part Three: Damage-Tolerant Approach
    1. 9 Fracture mechanics and its implications for fatigue
      1. 9.1 Griffith fracture theory
      2. 9.2 Energy release rate and crack driving force
      3. 9.3 Linear elastic fracture mechanics
        1. 9.3.1 Macroscopic modes of fracture
        2. 9.3.2 The plane problem
        3. 9.3.3 Conditions of K-dominance
        4. 9.3.4 Fracture toughness
        5. 9.3.5 Characterization of fatigue crack growth
      4. 9.4 Equivalence of G and K
        1. 9.4.1 Example problem: G and K for the DCB specimen
        2. 9.4.2 Example problem: Stress intensity factor for a blister test
      5. 9.5 Plastic zone size in monotonic loading
        1. 9.5.1 The Irwin approximation
        2. 9.5.2 The Dugdale model
        3. 9.5.3 The Barenblatt model
      6. 9.6 Plastic zone size in cyclic loading
      7. 9.7 Elastic–plastic fracture mechanics
        1. 9.7.1 The J-integral
        2. 9.7.2 Hutchinson–Rice–Rosengren (HRR) singular fields
        3. 9.7.3 Crack tip opening displacement
        4. 9.7.4 Conditions of J-dominance
        5. 9.7.5 Example problem: Specimen size requirements
        6. 9.7.6 Characterization of fatigue crack growth
      8. 9.8 Two-parameter representation of crack-tip fields
        1. 9.8.1 Small-scale yielding
        2. 9.8.2 Large-scale yielding
      9. 9.9 Mixed-mode fracture mechanics
      10. 9.10 Combined mode I–mode II fracture in ductile solids
      11. 9.11 Crack deflection
        1. 9.11.1 Branched elastic cracks
        2. 9.11.2 Multiaxial fracture due to crack deflection
      12. 9.12 Case study: Damage-tolerant design of aircraft fuselage
        1. Exercises
    2. 10 Fatigue crack growth in ductile solids
      1. 10.1 Characterization of crack growth
        1. 10.1.1 Fracture mechanics approach
        2. 10.1.2 Fatigue life calculations
      2. 10.2 Microscopic stages of fatigue crack growth
        1. 10.2.1 Stage I fatigue crack growth
        2. 10.2.2 Stage II crack growth and fatigue striations
        3. 10.2.3 Models for striation formation
        4. 10.2.4 Environmental effects on stage II fatigue
      3. 10.3 Different regimes of fatigue crack growth
      4. 10.4 Near-threshold fatigue crack growth
        1. 10.4.1 Models for fatigue thresholds
        2. 10.4.2 Effects of microstructural size scale
        3. 10.4.3 Effects of slip characteristics
        4. 10.4.4 Example problem: Issues of length scales
        5. 10.4.5 On the determination of fatigue thresholds
      5. 10.5 Intermediate region of crack growth
      6. 10.6 High growth rate regime
      7. 10.7 Case study: Fatigue failure of aircraft structures
      8. 10.8 Case study: Fatigue failure of total hip components
      9. 10.9 Combined mode I–mode II fatigue crack growth
        1. 10.9.1 Mixed-mode fatigue fracture envelopes
        2. 10.9.2 Path of the mixed-mode crack
        3. 10.9.3 Some general observations
      10. 10.10 Combined mode I-mode III fatigue crack growth
        1. 10.10.1 Crack growth characteristics
        2. 10.10.2 Estimation of intrinsic growth resistance
        3. Exercises
    3. 11 Fatigue crack growth in brittle solids
      1. 11.1 Some general effects of cyclic loading on crack growth
      2. 11.2 Characterization of crack growth in brittle solids
        1. 11.2.1 Crack growth under static loads
        2. 11.2.2 Crack growth under cyclic loads
      3. 11.3 Crack growth resistance and toughening of brittle solids
        1. 11.3.1 Example problem: Fracture resistance and stability of crack growth
      4. 11.4 Cyclic damage zone ahead of tensile fatigue crack
      5. 11.5 Fatigue crack growth at low temperatures
      6. 11.6 Case study: Fatigue cracking in heart valve prostheses
      7. 11.7 Fatigue crack growth at elevated temperatures
        1. 11.7.1 Micromechanisms of deformation and damage due to intergranular/interfacial glassy films
        2. 11.7.2 Crack growth characteristics at high temperatures
        3. 11.7.3 Role of viscous films and ligaments
        4. Exercises
    4. 12 Fatigue crack growth in noncrystalline solids
      1. 12.1 Fatigue crack growth characteristics
      2. 12.2 Mechanisms of fatigue crack growth
        1. 12.2.1 Fatigue striations
        2. 12.2.2 Discontinuous growth bands
        3. 12.2.3 Combined effects of crazing and shear flow
        4. 12.2.4 Shear bands
        5. 12.2.5 Some general observations
        6. 12.2.6 Example problem: Fatigue crack growth in epoxy adhesive
      3. 12.3 Fatigue of metallic glasses
      4. 12.4 Case study: Fatigue fracture in rubber-toughened epoxy
        1. Exercises
  12. Part Four: Advanced Topics
    1. 13 Contact fatigue: sliding, rolling and fretting
      1. 13.1 Basic terminology and definitions
      2. 13.2 Mechanics of stationary contact under normal loading
        1. 13.2.1 Elastic indentation of a planar surface
        2. 13.2.2 Plastic deformation
        3. 13.2.3 Residual stresses during unloading
        4. 13.2.4 Example problem: Beneficial effects of surface compressive stresses
      3. 13.3 Mechanics of sliding contact fatigue
        1. 13.3.1 Sliding of a sphere on a planar surface
        2. 13.3.2 Partial slip and complete sliding of a cylinder on a planar surface
        3. 13.3.3 Partial slip of a sphere on a planar surface
        4. 13.3.4 Cyclic variations in tangential force
      4. 13.4 Rolling contact fatigue
        1. 13.4.1 Hysteretic energy dissipation in rolling contact fatigue
        2. 13.4.2 Shakedown limits for rolling and sliding contact fatigue
      5. 13.5 Mechanisms of contact fatigue damage
        1. 13.5.1 Types of microscopic damage
        2. 13.5.2 Case study: Contact fatigue cracking in gears
      6. 13.6 Fretting fatigue
        1. 13.6.1 Definition and conditions of occurrence
        2. 13.6.2 Fretting fatigue damage
        3. 13.6.3 Palliatives to inhibit fretting fatigue
        4. 13.6.4 Example problem: Fracture mechanics methodology for fretting fatigue fracture
      7. 13.7 Case study: Fretting fatigue in a turbogenerator rotor
        1. 13.7.1 Design details and geometry
        2. 13.7.2 Service loads and damage occurrence
        3. Exercises
    2. 14 Retardation and transients in fatigue crack growth
      1. 14.1 Fatigue crack closure
      2. 14.2 Plasticity-induced crack closure
        1. 14.2.1 Mechanisms
        2. 14.2.2 Analytical models
        3. 14.2.3 Numerical models
        4. 14.2.4 Effects of load ratio on fatigue thresholds
      3. 14.3 Oxide-induced crack closure
        1. 14.3.1 Mechanism
        2. 14.3.2 Implications for environmental effects
      4. 14.4 Roughness-induced crack closure
        1. 14.4.1 Mechanism
        2. 14.4.2 Implications for microstructural effects on threshold fatigue
      5. 14.5 Viscous fluid-induced crack closure
        1. 14.5.1 Mechanism
      6. 14.6 Phase transformation-induced crack closure
      7. 14.7 Some basic features of fatigue crack closure
      8. 14.8 Issues and difficulties in the quantification of crack closure
      9. 14.9 Fatigue crack deflection
        1. 14.9.1 Linear elastic analyses
        2. 14.9.2 Experimental observations
        3. 14.9.3 Example problem: Possible benefits of deflection
      10. 14.10 Additional retardation mechanisms
        1. 14.10.1 Crack-bridging and trapping in composite materials
        2. 14.10.2 On crack retardation in advanced metallic systems
      11. 14.11 Case study: Variable amplitude spectrum loads
      12. 14.12 Retardation following tensile overloads
        1. 14.12.1 Plasticity-induced crack closure
        2. 14.12.2 Crack tip blunting
        3. 14.12.3 Residual compressive stresses
        4. 14.12.4 Deflection or bifurcation of the crack
        5. 14.12.5 Near-threshold mechanisms
      13. 14.13 Transient effects following compressive overloads
        1. 14.13.1 Compressive overloads applied to notched materials
      14. 14.14 Load sequence effects
        1. 14.14.1 Block tensile load sequences
        2. 14.14.2 Tension–compression load sequences
      15. 14.15 Life prediction models
        1. 14.15.1 Yield zone models
        2. 14.15.2 Numerical models of crack closure
        3. 14.15.3 Engineering approaches
        4. 14.15.4 The characteristic approach
        5. Exercises
    3. 15 Small fatigue cracks
      1. 15.1 Definitions of small cracks
      2. 15.2 Similitude
      3. 15.3 Microstructural aspects of small flaw growth
      4. 15.4 Threshold conditions for small flaws
        1. 15.4.1 Transition crack size
        2. 15.4.2 Critical size of cyclic plastic zone
        3. 15.4.3 Slip band models
      5. 15.5 Fracture mechanics for small cracks at notches
        1. 15.5.1 Threshold for crack nucleation
        2. 15.5.2 Example problem: Crack growth from notches
      6. 15.6 Continuum aspects of small flaw growth
        1. 15.6.1 Two-parameter characterization of short fatigue cracks
        2. 15.6.2 Near-tip plasticity
        3. 15.6.3 Notch-tip plasticity
      7. 15.7 Effects of physical smallness of fatigue flaws
        1. 15.7.1 Mechanical effects
        2. 15.7.2 Environmental effects
      8. 15.8 On the origins of ‘short crack problem’
      9. 15.9 Case study: Small fatigue cracks in surface coatings
        1. 15.9.1 Theoretical background for cracks approaching interfaces perpendicularly
        2. 15.9.2 Application to fatigue at surface coatings
        3. Exercises
    4. 16 Environmental interactions: corrosion-fatigue and creep-fatigue
      1. 16.1 Mechanisms of corrosion-fatigue
        1. 16.1.1 Hydrogenous gases
        2. 16.1.2 Aqueous media
        3. 16.1.3 Metal embrittlement
      2. 16.2 Nucleation of corrosion-fatigue cracks
        1. 16.2.1 Gaseous environments
        2. 16.2.2 Aqueous environments
      3. 16.3 Growth of corrosion-fatigue cracks
        1. 16.3.1 Types of corrosion-fatigue crack growth
        2. 16.3.2 Formation of brittle striations
        3. 16.3.3 Effects of mechanical variables
        4. 16.3.4 Models of corrosion-fatigue
      4. 16.4 Case study: Fatigue design of exhaust valves for cars
      5. 16.5 Fatigue at low temperatures
      6. 16.6 Damage and crack initiation at high temperatures
        1. 16.6.1 Micromechanisms of damage
        2. 16.6.2 Life prediction models
      7. 16.7 Fatigue crack growth at high temperatures
        1. 16.7.1 Fracture mechanics characterization
        2. 16.7.2 Characterization of creep-fatigue crack growth
        3. 16.7.3 Summary and some general observations
      8. 16.8 Case study: Creep-fatigue in steam-power generators
        1. Exercises
  13. Appendix
  14. References
  15. Author index
  16. Subject index