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Fascination

Book Description

Developed from the established traditions of print and radio journalism, television journalism has often failed to reach its potential to develop away from these other media. However, because of the synthesis of words, pictures, and sound, television journalism has the ability to shift from simply reporting the news to weaving stories. In Fascination, veteran television journalist Nancy Graham Holm incorporates years in the field and extensive teaching experience to produce an instructive and entertaining guide to all aspects of television journalism. With a dual focus on aesthetics and technique, this book instructs the reader on the best way to use visuals and sound, different reporting techniques, and appropriate behaviour for journalists. Each chapter benefits from real-world examples and helpful tips to guide the reader through each stage of television journalism. This book is an excellent guide for those wanting to start a career in television journalism as well as seasoned professionals wishing to gain a new perspective.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. 1 Overview
    1. Natural Sound and Articulate Pictures
    2. Story Styles
    3. The Role of the TV Journalist
    4. New Options, New Challenges
  9. 2 Sound
    1. Natural Sound Gives Information
    2. The Ear Expects to Hear Sound
    3. An A-V Tease Introduces the Story
    4. A-V Bites Reinforce Significant Points
    5. A-V Transitions Link Points and Chapters
    6. Natural Sound Works Well with Split Audio
    7. Use Music to Set an Emotional Tone
      1. Beware of Edith Piaf!
    8. Natural Sound or Music?
    9. Walla
    10. Room Tone
    11. Microphones Are Stupid!
  10. 3 Articulate Pictures
    1. Avoid Wallpaper Video
    2. Two Types of Pictures for Storytelling
    3. Fly-on-the-Wall Photography
    4. Visual Proof
    5. Different Shots, Different Sizes
    6. Primary and Secondary Motion
      1. Use Secondary Motion Only When it Is Motivated
      2. Editing Primary and Secondary Motion Shots Together
    7. Different Types of Photography
    8. CUs Need a Context for Reference
    9. CUs as Effective Transition Shots
      1. The Tighter the Shot, the Less Time You Can Hold It
      2. Close-Ups (CU) or Extreme Close-Ups (XCU) of the Human Face Give Special Problems
      3. Material Objects Take on a New Dimension When Perceived in an Extreme Close-Up (XCU)
    10. The Relationship of Pictures to One Another
    11. Tertiary Motion: Editing
    12. Rules! Rules! Rules!
    13. Hard and Soft
    14. Fundamental Rule: OOF!
    15. Editing Gives Energy
    16. The Best Edits Are Invisible
    17. Overlapping Actions
    18. Cutaways
      1. Avoid the "Tulip Cutaway"
    19. Action/Reaction
    20. Don't Be Lazy! Set a High Standard
    21. What's the Essential Difference between a Hard Cut and a Dissolve?
      1. Use a Dissolve to Show that Time Has Passed
      2. Use a Dissolve to Cover a Jump Cut in an Interview
    22. Respect Vectors
      1. When Motion Vectors Distract
      2. When Motion Vectors Allow the Viewer to Experience the Story
    23. The Z Axis
    24. Tempo Is Determined by Editing VO First
    25. Edit with Rhythm
    26. When Interviews Are Used as VO
    27. Don't Step on the Natural Sound Bites
    28. When Rhythm Doesn't Matter
    29. Color or Black/White
  11. 4 Deciding the Story's Treatment
    1. Reporting: Top Down, Outside Looking In
    2. Storytelling Through People Stories: Eye Level, Inside Looking Out
      1. Significant Vision
    3. Choosing the Story's Treatment
    4. How Many Minutes Should the Story Be?
    5. Is It a Picture Story?
    6. BBIs
  12. 5 Top-Down Features
    1. African Dance is Popular in Denmark
    2. Danish Folk High Schools are Unusual
      1. News Features
  13. 6 Top-Down Information Stories
    1. What About Identification and Fascination?
    2. The Storytelling Model
    3. The Triple T Formula
    4. T1: Finding the Angle (General)
    5. Producing the Angle
    6. How Does Research Affect Your Angle?
    7. Why We Don't Bury the Angle
    8. Using a Case Study
    9. T2: Context and Development (Specific)
    10. Fleshing Out the Model with Specific Points that Give the Details
    11. Step by Step
    12. Move the Story Forward!
    13. T3: The Conclusion that Summarises the Story
    14. Step-by-Step
    15. Consider an AV Tag
    16. The 70-30 Rule
  14. 7 Eye Level People Stories
    1. A Liberal Social Agenda
    2. Facts Are Not the Only Way to Inform
    3. The Narrative Model in TV Journalism
    4. "Suicide Tourists" (CBS, 2003)
    5. "The Last Journey" (Den Sidste Rejse, 2003, TV2)
    6. Personality-Driven Journalism
    7. Personalities Not Necessarily Required
    8. The Value of Emotion
    9. Do People Stories Have a Limit?
  15. 8 Words Vs. Pictures
    1. Writing the Current Affairs Story
    2. Writing to Pictures
    3. Writing for Pictures
    4. Combo Style
    5. Writing for the Ear. It's a Conversation
    6. Some Rules for Writing for the Ear
    7. Lyrical Writing Awakens the Senses
    8. Use Ordinary Language
    9. Tight Writing
    10. Transitions Between Studio and Story
    11. Leading to a Sync as Documentation
    12. Some Rules for Recording the VO
  16. 9 Using Interviews
    1. How Do You Get People to Talk to You?
    2. Research
    3. Don't Videotape Research Interviews
    4. Don't Edit Research Interviews into the Story
    5. Managing the Interview in Information-Based Stories: Syncs and Sound Bites
    6. Videotaping Your Documentation Interviews
      1. No Profiles, Please!
      2. Pay Attention to Eye Contact
      3. No Guillotine Shots, Please!
      4. When You Want Intensity
      5. Be Careful About Extreme Close-Ups in Interviews. Think About Chocolate!
      6. Lighting the Interview
    7. Editing the Interview
      1. A Reverse Shot of the Journalist
      2. LS of the Journalist and the Interview Subject
      3. CU of Hands Gesticulating or Clutching Something
      4. Pictures that Illustrate the Subject's Comments
      5. An Object in the Room Where the Interview Is Taking Place
    8. Continuity
    9. Keeping Control of the Story
    10. When Syncs Don't Fit the VO
    11. Remember 70-30 for Information-Based Stories
    12. Have Confidence in Your Research!
    13. When Syncs Are Factually Untrue
    14. Interviewing Children
    15. Interviewing Teenagers
    16. How to Get Good Sound Bites from Shy Subjects
    17. When Interviews Dominate
      1. Type 1: the Victim's Story
      2. Type 2: a Debate Between Equals
      3. Pings and Pongs Must Have the Same Premise
      4. Pings and Pongs Should Be of the Same Length
      5. Story Telling Pictures Are Sacrificed
    18. Recording Interviews over the Telephone
    19. Never Sacrifice Clean Audio
    20. Identify Your Speakers
  17. 10 The Role of the TV Journalist
    1. On Camera, in Your Face!
    2. Why Be Seen?
    3. TV Journalism Demands Performance Skills
    4. The Alternative Is an Invisible Journalist
      1. The "Noddy" Reverse
      2. The "Walking and Talking" Setup Shot
      3. The Stand-Up or "Piece to Camera"
      4. The On-Camera Question
      5. Tags
    5. Do I Really Want to Be On Camera?
    6. Off Camera: Voice Training Is Recommended
    7. "The Voice of God!"
    8. A Misunderstanding About VOs
    9. When Is a VO Narration Necessary?
    10. Finding a Good Talker
    11. Is it Ever OK to Editorialize?
    12. Reporter-As-Celebrity
  18. 11 Long Stories
    1. What Is a Documentary?
    2. Traditional Documentaries Are Subjective
    3. Why a News Documentary Is Different
    4. Artists or Journalists?
    5. Cultural Differences
    6. The Tool Box
    7. Finding the Case Study
    8. Structure in Information-Based Stories
      1. Opening
      2. Body
      3. Transitions Between Chapters
      4. Ending
    9. Structure in Identification Stories
    10. Examples of Categories and Styles
  19. 12 Ethical Considerations for Eye Level Documentaries
  20. Glossary
  21. About the Author
  22. Bibliography