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Face Recognition in Adverse Conditions

Book Description

Facial recognition software has improved by leaps and bounds over the past few decades, with error rates decreasing significantly within the past ten years. Though this is true, conditions such as poor lighting, obstructions, and profile-only angles have continued to persist in preventing wholly accurate readings. Face Recognition in Adverse Conditions examines how the field of facial recognition takes these adverse conditions into account when designing more effective applications by discussing facial recognition under real world PIE variations, current applications, and the future of the field of facial recognition research. The work is intended for academics, engineers, and researchers specializing in the field of facial recognition.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
    2. List of Reviewers
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Section 1: Preliminaries and Reviews
    1. Chapter 1: Real World Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLICATIONS RELATED TO SECURITY
      4. APPLICATIONS RELATED TO FORENSIC SCIENCE
      5. APPLICATIONS RELATED TO SERVICES
      6. APPLICATION-ORIENTED DATABASES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Unconstrained Face Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FULLY AUTOMATIC FACE RECOGNITION
      4. ELASTIC GRAPH MATCHING
      5. ACTIVE APPEARANCE MODELS
      6. 3D MORPHABLE MODELS
      7. RECENT FACE ALIGNMENT AND FACE RECOGNITION
      8. FACE RECOGNITION IN UNCONSTRAINED CONDITIONS
      9. FACE RECOGNITION UNDER AGE VARIATIONS
      10. POSE INVARIANT FACE RECOGNITION
      11. FACE RECOGNITION UNDER ILLUMINATION CHANGES
      12. FACE RECOGNITION IN COSMETIC SURGERY
      13. FACE RECOGNITION IN MOBILE DEVICES
      14. FACE RECOGNITION FOR SURVEILLANCE
      15. FACE RECOGNITION IN THE WILD
      16. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Face Recognition Methods for Uncontrolled Settings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SIMILARITY, SPARSITY, AND STATISTICAL LEARNING
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 2: Face Recognition under Real World PIE Variations
    1. Chapter 4: 3D Face Recognition in the Presence of Partial Data
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. METHODS
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 5: 3D Face Recognition Using Spatial Relations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TWO 3D FACE RECOGNITION SOLUTIONS USING SPATIAL RELATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 6: Robust 3D Face Identification in the Presence of Occlusions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW: OCCLUSION HANDLING AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF A 3D FACE IDENTIFIER
      5. CASE STUDY: DESIGNING AN OCCLUSION ROBUST FACE IDENTIFIER
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 7: Illumination Invariant Face Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PASSIVE APPROACHES
      4. 3. ACTIVE APPROACHES
      5. 4. DISSCUSSIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 8: Facial Action Recognition in 2D and 3D
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DATABASES
      4. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION METHODS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 9: Local vs. Global
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LOCAL APPROACHES FOR FACE RECOGNITION
      4. LOCAL APPEARANCE-BASED METHODS
      5. CRITICAL ASPECTS AND OPEN QUESTIONS FOR LOCAL APPROACHES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 10: Fusion of Face Recognition Classifiers under Adverse Conditions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. 3. AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE BENEFITS OF THE QUALITY BASED FUSION
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 11: Recognizing Face Images with Disguise Variations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. TYPES OF DISGUISE VARIATIONS
      4. 3. EXISTING DATABASES USED FOR DISGUISE ANALYSIS
      5. 4. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF DISGUISE VARIATIONS ON FACE RECOGNITION
      6. 5. TECHNIQUES ROBUST AGAINST DISGUISE VARIATIONS
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 12: Using Ocular Data for Unconstrained Biometric Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PERIOCULAR ANATOMY AND STRCTURES
      4. 3. DATA SETS
      5. 4. RELEVANT RESEARCH
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. 6. ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
  10. Section 3: Example Applications
    1. Chapter 13: Face in Person Re-Identification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM FACE RECOGNITION TO FACE RE-IDENTIFICATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
      4. USING FACE FOR PERSON RE-IDENTIFICATION: SOME EXAMPLES
      5. FUTURE PROSPECTS AND CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 14: Methods and Perspectives in Face Tracking Based on Human Perception
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A SHORT REVIEW ABOUT FACE DETECTION AND TRACKING
      4. HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM IN FACE DETECTION AND TRACKING: RESULTS, ADVANTAGES AND PERSPECTIVES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 15: Human Face Region Detection Driving Activity Recognition in Video
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND KNOWLDEGE: RELATED WORK
      4. HUMAN CONSTRAINED PIXEL CHANGE HISTORY
      5. ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION
      6. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 16: Automatic Face Image Tagging in Large Collections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF PRESENT FACE TAGGING APPLICATIONS
      4. SOME METHODS FOR FACE RECOGNITION IN TAGGING
      5. SOME EXAMPLES OF STATE OF THE ART APPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 17: Secure Face Recognition for Mobile Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOMETRICS
      4. SMART MOBILE DEVICES
      5. USE CASES ON SMART MOBILE DEVICES
      6. AUTHENTICATION
      7. BIOMETRIC SYSTEM ATTACKS
      8. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS TO FACE RECOGNITION REPLAY ATTACKS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 4: Future Research Directions
    1. Chapter 18: Face Recognition in Adverse Conditions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ROLE OF POSE
      4. THE ROLE OF ILLUMINATION
      5. THE ROLE OF EXPRESSION
      6. UNCONSTRAINED FACE RECOGNITION: WHERE ARE WE? TECHNIQUES AND MODELS
      7. 3D-BASED TECHNIQUES: ACCURACY VS. COST?
      8. GLOBAL VS. LOCAL APPROACHES
      9. UNVOLUNTARY OR MALICIOUS DISGUISE
      10. MULTIMODAL SOLUTIONS
      11. ADVANCED AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors