This chapter analyses the development of quality assurance and assessment in Italian universities since its start in the early 1990s and pinpoints three stages, all of which were prompted by legislation. Quality assurance has made great progress but the situation is still critical, in particular as regards its effectiveness. As a result, a restructuring of external quality audit was undertaken in 2011. The decision whether to adopt an approach to quality assurance and assessment oriented to standardisation or to differentiation of university activities is still hovering in the background.
quality assurance ...