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Exposure Digital Field Guide

Book Description

Exposure is the number one topic that digital photographers want to know about. This full-color book fits in your camera bag and provides all the information you need on this very important aspect of digital photography.

Exposure involves combining ISO, aperture, and shutter speed in different variations to accomplish your vision of the perfect image. Exposure Digital Field Guide takes you through the complex techniques of good exposure, taking you from hobbyist to serious amateur photographer.

  • Explains how to adjust shutter speed and aperture to control the amount of light hitting the camera's light sensor

  • Teaches you how to "see the light" for the perfect exposure

  • Helps you gain confidence as you move from automatic controls into manipulating the elements of exposure for specific results

  • Packed with stunning full-color photographs to illustrate what you can achieve

  • Provides suggested settings for various shooting situations and subjects

  • Includes a tear-out color checker card to help you maintain true color

  • Fits in your camera bag for ready reference in the field

Exposure Digital Field Guide helps you master one of the most complex and intricate elements of digital photography.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Introduction
  6. 1. Understanding Exposure
    1. 1.1. Defining Exposure
      1. 1.1.1. Stop
      2. 1.1.2. Exposure value
    2. 1.2. Equivalent Exposures
    3. 1.3. Exposure Modes
      1. 1.3.1. Program auto mode
      2. 1.3.2. Shutter speed priority mode
      3. 1.3.3. Aperture priority mode
      4. 1.3.4. Manual mode
    4. 1.4. Metering Light
    5. 1.5. Camera Metering Modes
      1. 1.5.1. Spot metering
      2. 1.5.2. Center-weighted metering
      3. 1.5.3. Scene metering
    6. 1.6. Exposure Compensation
    7. 1.7. Exposure Compensation versus Flash Compensation
    8. 1.8. Bracketing Your Exposures
    9. 1.9. Using the Histogram
    10. 1.10. Using the Clipping Information
    11. 1.11. File Formats
      1. 1.11.1. RAW
      2. 1.11.2. TIFF
      3. 1.11.3. JPEG
  7. 2. Working with Light
    1. 2.1. Direction of Light
      1. 2.1.1. Front lighting
      2. 2.1.2. Back lighting
      3. 2.1.3. Overhead lighting
      4. 2.1.4. Side lighting
    2. 2.2. Intensity of Light
    3. 2.3. Color of Light
      1. 2.3.1. Color temperature
      2. 2.3.2. White balance
      3. 2.3.3. Daylight
      4. 2.3.4. Tungsten or incandescent light
      5. 2.3.5. Fluorescent light
    4. 2.4. Using a Flash
      1. 2.4.1. Fill light
      2. 2.4.2. Color gels
  8. 3. Shutter Speed
    1. 3.1. Controlling the Shutter Speed
      1. 3.1.1. Camera controls
        1. 3.1.1.1. Program auto mode
        2. 3.1.1.2. Shutter speed priority mode
        3. 3.1.1.3. Manual mode
    2. 3.2. When Shutter Speed Is More Important Than Aperture
    3. 3.3. Freezing the Action
      1. 3.3.1. Superfast shutter speeds
      2. 3.3.2. Very fast shutter speeds
      3. 3.3.3. Fast shutter speeds
      4. 3.3.4. Normal shutter speeds
      5. 3.3.5. Slow shutter speeds
    4. 3.4. Very slow shutter speeds
    5. 3.5. Panning
  9. 4. Aperture
    1. 4.1. Controlling the Aperture
      1. 4.1.1. Understanding f-stops
      2. 4.1.2. Camera controls
      3. 4.1.3. Program auto mode
      4. 4.1.4. Aperture priority mode
      5. 4.1.5. Manual mode
    2. 4.2. Depth of Field
      1. 4.2.1. Defining the depth of field
      2. 4.2.2. Controlling the depth of field
      3. 4.2.3. Shallow depth of field
      4. 4.2.4. Middle depth of field
      5. 4.2.5. Deep depth of field
    3. 4.3. Aperture versus Shutter Speed
    4. 4.4. Understanding Lens Limitations
      1. 4.4.1. Lens speeds
      2. 4.4.2. Diffraction
      3. 4.4.3. Variable and constant aperture lenses
        1. 4.4.3.1. Variable aperture lenses
        2. 4.4.3.2. Constant aperture lenses
      4. 4.4.4. Macro lenses, aperture, and depth of field
  10. 5. ISO
    1. 5.1. Understanding ISO and Light Sensitivity
    2. 5.2. Digital Noise
    3. 5.3. High ISO Noise Reduction
      1. 5.3.1. Noise reduction through exposure
      2. 5.3.2. Noise reduction using software or camera settings
    4. 5.4. Using a Higher ISO
  11. 6. Event Photography
    1. 6.1. Exposure Considerations
      1. 6.1.1. Shooting outdoors
        1. 6.1.1.1. Using available light
        2. 6.1.1.2. Using a flash
        3. 6.1.1.3. Shooting in low light
      2. 6.1.2. Shooting inside
        1. 6.1.2.1. Using available light
        2. 6.1.2.2. Using a Flash
      3. 6.1.3. Checking the exposure
    2. 6.2. Concert Photography
    3. 6.3. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 6.3.1. Camera
      2. 6.3.2. Lenses
        1. 6.3.2.1. Fast lenses
        2. 6.3.2.2. Telephoto and zoom lenses
        3. 6.3.2.3. Prime lenses
      3. 6.3.3. Accessories
        1. 6.3.3.1. Camera bags
        2. 6.3.3.2. Photo vests
    4. 6.4. Shooting Events
    5. 6.5. Shooting Tips
  12. 7. Portrait Photography
    1. 7.1. Exposure Considerations
      1. 7.1.1. Aperture
      2. 7.1.2. Shutter speed
    2. 7.2. Considering Lighting and Location
      1. 7.2.1. Indoors
      2. 7.2.2. Outdoors
      3. 7.2.3. Portrait tones
        1. 7.2.3.1. High-key portraits
        2. 7.2.3.2. Mid-key portraits
        3. 7.2.3.3. Low-key portraits
    3. 7.3. Working with People
      1. 7.3.1. Children
      2. 7.3.2. Groups
    4. 7.4. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 7.4.1. Lenses
      2. 7.4.2. Lights
        1. 7.4.2.1. Studio strobes
        2. 7.4.2.2. Continuous lights
        3. 7.4.2.3. Portable flashes
      3. 7.4.3. Other accessories
        1. 7.4.3.1. Reflectors
        2. 7.4.3.2. Diffusers
        3. 7.4.3.3. Backdrops
        4. 7.4.3.4. Light meter
    5. 7.5. Shooting Portraits
    6. 7.6. Shooting Tips
  13. 8. Landscape and Nature Photography
    1. 8.1. Exposure Considerations
      1. 8.1.1. When to shoot
      2. 8.1.2. Shoot in Aperture priority mode
      3. 8.1.3. Metering modes
      4. 8.1.4. Shooting snow
      5. 8.1.5. Checking the exposure
    2. 8.2. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 8.2.1. Lenses
      2. 8.2.2. Accessories
        1. 8.2.2.1. Tripods
        2. 8.2.2.2. Filters
          1. 8.2.2.2.1. Circular Polarizing filter
          2. 8.2.2.2.2. Neutral density gradient filter
        3. 8.2.2.3. GPS receiver
    3. 8.3. Macro Nature Photography
    4. 8.4. Panoramic Photography
    5. 8.5. Shooting Landscapes and Nature Photographs
    6. 8.6. Shooting Tips
  14. 9. Night and Low-Light Photography
    1. 9.1. Exposure Considerations
      1. 9.1.1. Long shutter speeds
      2. 9.1.2. Wide open aperture
      3. 9.1.3. High ISO
    2. 9.2. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 9.2.1. Cameras and lenses
      2. 9.2.2. Accessories
        1. 9.2.2.1. Tripods
        2. 9.2.2.2. Cable release and remote control
    3. 9.3. Photographing Light Trails and Fireworks
    4. 9.4. Photographing Silhouettes
    5. 9.5. Sunrise and Sunset Photography
    6. 9.6. Shooting at Night and in Low Light
    7. 9.7. Shooting Tips
  15. 10. Sports and Action Photography
    1. 10.1. Exposure Considerations
      1. 10.1.1. Shooting outside during the day
      2. 10.1.2. Shooting inside
      3. 10.1.3. Shooting outside at night
    2. 10.2. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 10.2.1. Cameras
      2. 10.2.2. Lenses
      3. 10.2.3. Accessories
    3. 10.3. Shooting Sports and Action Photographs
      1. 10.3.1. Get into position
      2. 10.3.2. Figure out which mode to use
      3. 10.3.3. Get good non-action action shots
    4. 10.4. Shooting Tips
  16. 11. Wedding Photography
    1. 11.1. Exposure Considerations
      1. 11.1.1. The bride and groom
      2. 11.1.2. Shooting inside
      3. 11.1.3. Exposing for movement
      4. 11.1.4. Evaluating exposure
    2. 11.2. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 11.2.1. Camera bodies
      2. 11.2.2. Lenses
      3. 11.2.3. Dedicated flash
      4. 11.2.4. Accessories
    3. 11.3. Shooting a Wedding
      1. 11.3.1. Getting ready for the bride
      2. 11.3.2. Getting ready for the groom
      3. 11.3.3. The ceremony
      4. 11.3.4. The formal portraits
      5. 11.3.5. The reception
    4. 11.4. Shooting Tips
  17. 12. Wildlife and Animal Photography
    1. 12.1. Exposure Consideration
      1. 12.1.1. Using Aperture priority mode
      2. 12.1.2. Picking the right metering mode
        1. 12.1.2.1. Spot metering mode
        2. 12.1.2.2. Scene metering mode
    2. 12.2. The Right Equipment for the Job
      1. 12.2.1. Cameras
      2. 12.2.2. Lenses
        1. 12.2.2.1. Telephoto lenses
        2. 12.2.2.2. Teleconverters
        3. 12.2.2.3. Fast lenses
      3. 12.2.3. Accessories
        1. 12.2.3.1. Tripods
        2. 12.2.3.2. Monopods
        3. 12.2.3.3. Beanbags
        4. 12.2.3.4. Remote triggers
    3. 12.3. Pet Photography
    4. 12.4. Shooting Wildlife and Animal Photographs
    5. 12.5. Shooting Tips
  18. 13. Creative Exposure
    1. 13.1. Exposure Considerations
    2. 13.2. High exposure
    3. 13.3. Underexposure
    4. 13.4. Using Exposure to Create a Mood
    5. 13.5. Using ISO Noise Creatively
  19. A. Software
    1. A.1. Adobe Photoshop
      1. A.1.1. Adobe Camera Raw
      2. A.1.2. Photoshop
    2. A.2. Adobe Photoshop Lightroom
      1. A.2.1. Library module
      2. A.2.2. Develop module
    3. A.3. Adobe Photoshop Elements
    4. A.4. Apple Aperture
    5. A.5. iPhoto
  20. B. How to Use the Gray Card and Color Checker
    1. B.1. The Gray Card
    2. B.2. The Color Checker
  21. Glossary