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Expert Oracle RAC 12c

Book Description

Expert Oracle RAC 12c is a hands-on book helping you understand and implement Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), and to reduce the total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) of a RAC database. As a seasoned professional, you are probably aware of the importance of understanding the technical details behind the RAC stack. This book provides deep understanding of RAC concepts and implementation details that you can apply toward your day-to-day operational practices. You’ll be guided in troubleshooting and avoiding trouble in your installation. Successful RAC operation hinges upon a fast-performing network interconnect, and this book dedicates a chapter solely to that very important and easily overlooked topic.

All four authors are experienced RAC engineers with a wealth of hard-won experience encountering and surmounting the challenges of running a RAC environment that delivers on its promise. In Expert Oracle RAC 12c they provide you a framework in which to avoid repeating their hard-won lessons. Their goal is for you to manage your own RAC environment with ease and expertise.

  • • Provides a deep conceptual understanding of RAC
  • • Provides best practices to implement RAC properly and match application workload
  • • Enables readers to troubleshoot RAC with ease
  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title
    3. Copyright
    4. Contents at a Glance
    5. Contents
    6. About the Authors
    7. About the Technical Reviewers
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. Chapter 1: Overview of Oracle RAC
      1. High Availability and Scalability
        1. What Is High Availability?
        2. Database Scalability
      2. Oracle RAC
        1. Database Clustering Architecture
        2. RAC Architecture
        3. Hardware Requirements for RAC
        4. RAC Components
        5. Oracle RAC: Cache Fusion
        6. RAC Background Processes
      3. Achieving the Benefits of Oracle RAC
        1. High AvailabilityAgainst Unplanned Downtime
        2. High Availability Against Planned Downtime
        3. Oracle RAC One Node to Achieve HA
        4. RAC Scalability
        5. Consolidating Database Services with Oracle RAC
      4. Considerations for Deploying RAC
        1. Cost of Ownership
        2. High Availability Considerations
        3. Scalability Considerations
        4. RAC or Not
      5. Summary
    10. Chapter 2: Clusterware Stack Management and Troubleshooting
      1. Clusterware 12cR1 and Its Components
        1. Storage Components of Oracle Clusterware
        2. Clusterware Software Stack
        3. Clusterware Startup Sequence
        4. ASM and Clusterware: Which One is Started First?
      2. Clusterware Management
        1. Clusterware Management Tools and Utilities
        2. Start Up and Stop Clusterware
        3. Managing Oracle Clusterware
        4. Managing OCR and the Voting Disk
        5. Managing CRS Resources
        6. Adding and Removing Cluster Nodes
        7. Troubleshooting common Clusterware Stack Start-Up Failures
        8. Diagnose, Debug, Trace Clusterware and RAC Issues
        9. Debugging Clusterware Components and Resources
        10. Grid Infrastructure Component Directory Structure
        11. Oracle Clusterware Troubleshooting - Tools and Utilities
      3. CHM
      4. Summary
    11. Chapter 3: RAC Operational Practices
      1. Workload Management
      2. Services
        1. Service Metrics
        2. Load Balancing Goals
        3. Runtime Failover
        4. Service in Second Network
        5. Guidelines for Services
      3. SCAN and SCAN Listeners
        1. SCAN Listener in Second Network (12c)
        2. Guidelines for SCAN Listeners
        3. Global Database Services (12c)
      4. Failover in RAC
        1. TAF
        2. Fast Connection Failover
        3. WebLogic Active GridLink
        4. Transaction Guard (12c)
        5. Application Continuity (12c)
      5. Policy-Managed Databases
      6. Temporary Tablespaces
      7. Massive Data Changes
      8. Performance Metrics Collection
      9. Parameter File Management
      10. Password File Management
      11. Managing Databases and Instances
      12. Managing VIPs, Listeners
      13. Miscellaneous Topics
        1. Process Priority
        2. Memory Starvation
        3. SGA size
        4. Filesystem Caching
      14. Summary
    12. Chapter 4: New Features in RAC 12c
      1. Oracle Flex Clusters
        1. Oracle Flex Cluster Architecture
        2. Scalability and Availability of Flex Clusters
        3. Configuring Flex Clusters
      2. Flex ASM Architecture
        1. Oracle Flex ASM Architecture
        2. Flex ASM and Flex Clusters
        3. Configuring Flex ASM
        4. ASM Clients and Relocating
        5. New ASM Storage Limits
        6. Replacing ASM Disk in Disk Group
        7. Scrubbing ASM Disk Groups and Files
        8. Reading Data Evenly in ASM Disk Group
        9. Measure and Tune Rebalance Operation
      3. What-If Command Evaluation
      4. PDBs on Oracle RAC
        1. PDB Architecture Overview
        2. PDBs on Oracle RAC
      5. 12cR1: Miscellaneous New Features for RAC
        1. Public Networks for RAC: IPv6 Support Added
        2. Global Data Services
        3. Online Resource Attribute Modification
        4. RAC 12cR1: Policy-Based Management and Administration
        5. ASM Disk Group: Shared ASM Password File
        6. Valid Node Checking: Restricting Service Registration
        7. 12cR1: Shared GNS
        8. RAC 12cR1: Restricting Service Registration
        9. Oracle ASM, ACFS, and ADVM: Improvements and New Features
        10. NFS High Availability
        11. 12cR1: CHM Enhancements
        12. Windows: Support for Oracle Home User
        13. OUI: Enhancements and Improvements
        14. 12cR1: Installations/Upgrades—Running Scripts Automatically
        15. 12cR1: Introducing Application Continuity
        16. Transaction Idempotence and Java Transaction Guard
      6. Deprecated and Desupported Features
      7. Summary
    13. Chapter 5: Storage and ASM Practices
      1. Storage Architecture and Configuration for Oracle RAC
        1. Storage Architecture and I/O for RAC
        2. RAID Configuration
        3. Storage Protocols
        4. Multipath Device Configuration
        5. Set Ownership of the Devices
      2. ASM
        1. ASM Instance
        2. ASM Storage Structure
        3. Manage ASM Using SQL Command and V$ASM Views
      3. Store OCR and Voting Disk in ASM
        1. Choose ASM for OCR and Voting Disk at GI Installation
        2. Move OCR and Voting Disk Files to a New ASM Diskgroup
      4. ACFS
        1. Create ACFS
        2. Create ACFS for Oracle RAC Home with ASMCA
      5. Summary
    14. Chapter 6: Application Design Issues
      1. Localized Inserts
      2. Excessive TRUNCATE or DROP Statements
      3. Sequence Cache
      4. Freelists and ASSM
      5. Excessive Commits
      6. Long Pending Transactions
      7. Localized Access
      8. Small Table Updates
      9. Index Design
      10. Inefficient Execution Plan
      11. Excessive Parallel Scans
      12. Full Table Scans
      13. Application Affinity
      14. Pipes
      15. Application Change Deployment
      16. Summary
    15. Chapter 7: Managing and Optimizing a Complex RAC Environment
      1. Shared vs. Non-Shared Oracle Homes
      2. Server Pools
      3. Types of Server Pools
        1. System-Defined Server Pools
        2. User-Defined Server Pools
        3. Creating and Managing Server Pools
      4. Planning and Designing RAC Databases
        1. Policy-Managed Databases
        2. Instance Caging
      5. Small- vs. Large-Scale Cluster Setups
      6. Split-Brain Scenarios and How to Avoid Them
      7. Understanding, Debugging, and Preventing Node Evictions
        1. Node Evictions—Synopsis and Overview
      8. Extended Distance (Stretch) Clusters—Synopsis, Overview, and Best Practices
        1. Extended Distance (Stretch) Clusters: Setup/Configuration Best Practices
      9. Setup and Configuration—Learning the New Way of Things
        1. OUI
        2. Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c
      10. RAC Installation and Setup—Considerations and Tips for OS Families: Linux, Solaris, and Windows
      11. RAC Database Performance Tuning: A Quick n’ Easy Approach
        1. The 3 A’s of Performance Tuning
      12. Summary
    16. Chapter 8: Backup and Recovery in RAC
      1. RMAN Synopsis
        1. Media Management Layer
        2. Online Backup and Recovery Prerequisites
        3. Non-RAC vs. RAC Database
        4. Shared Location for Redo and Archive Logs
        5. Snapshot Control File Configuration
        6. Multiple Channels Configuration for RAC
      2. Parallelism in RAC
        1. Instance/Crash Recovery in RAC
        2. Real-World Examples
      3. Manage RMAN with OEM Cloud Control 12c
      4. OCR recovery
      5. Summary
    17. Chapter 9: Network Practices
      1. Types of Network
      2. Network Layers
      3. Protocols
      4. VIPs
      5. Subnetting
      6. Cluster Interconnect
      7. Jumbo Frames
      8. Load Balancing and Failover
      9. Kernel Parameters
      10. Network Measurement Tools
      11. GC Lost Block Issue
      12. Configuring Network for Oracle RAC and Clusterware
        1. Establishing IP Address and Name Resolution
        2. Network Specification in Grid Infrastructure Installation
      13. Network Configuration in Clusterware
      14. Network Failover
      15. Second Network
      16. Summary
    18. Chapter 10: RAC Database Optimization
      1. Introduction to Cache Fusion
        1. Cache Fusion Processing
        2. GRD
        3. BL Resources and Locks
      2. Performance Analysis
        1. Analysis of the Receiving Side
        2. RAC Wait Events
        3. GC Current Block 2-Way/3-Way
        4. GC CR Block 2-Way/3-Way
        5. GC CR Grant 2-Way/Gc Current Grant 2-Way
        6. GC CR Block Busy/GC Current Block Busy
        7. GC CR Block Congested/GC Current Block Congested
      3. Placeholder Wait Events
      4. Sending-Side Analysis
        1. Block Types Served
        2. GCS Log Flush Sync
        3. Defending LMS Process
      5. GC Buffer Busy Acquire/Release
        1. Unique Indexes
        2. Table Blocks
      6. DRM
      7. Overview of DRM Processing
        1. DRM Stages
        2. GRD Freeze
        3. Parameters
        4. Changes in 12c
        5. DRM and Undo
        6. Troubleshooting DRM
      8. AWR Reports and ADDM
      9. ASH Reports
      10. Summary
    19. Chapter 11: Locks and Deadlocks
      1. Resources and Locks
      2. SGA Memory Allocation
        1. Resource Types
        2. Lock Modes
        3. Lock-Related Views
        4. Pluggable Databases (12c)
      3. Troubleshooting Locking Contention
      4. Enqueue Contention
        1. TX Enqueue Contention
        2. TM Enqueue Contention
        3. HW Enqueue Contention
      5. DFS Lock Handle
        1. SV Resources
        2. CI Resources
        3. DFS Lock Handle Summary
      6. Library Cache Locks/Pins
        1. Troubleshooting Library Cache Lock Contention
      7. Enqueue Statistics
      8. v$wait_chains
      9. Hanganalyze
      10. Deadlocks
        1. LMD Trace File Analysis
      11. Summary
    20. Chapter 12: Parallel Query in RAC
      1. Overview
      2. PX Execution in RAC
        1. Placement of PX Servers
        2. Measuring PX Traffic
        3. PX and Cache Fusion
        4. PEMS
        5. Parallelism Features and RAC
        6. Debugging PX Execution
      3. Index Creation in RAC
      4. Parallel DML in RAC
      5. Concurrent Union Processing (12c)
      6. Partition-Wise Join
      7. Summary
    21. Chapter 13: Clusterware and Database Upgrades
      1. Configuration
        1. Pre-Upgrade Checklist
      2. Initiating an Oracle Clusterware Upgrade
        1. The Importance of the Rootupgrade.sh Script
      3. Post-Upgrade Tasks
        1. Clusterware Downgrade
      4. Database Upgrade
        1. Deploying Manual Database Upgrade
        2. Post-Database Upgrade Steps
        3. Database Upgrade Using the DBUA
        4. DBUA Advantages
        5. Database Downgrade
      5. Summary
    22. Chapter 14: RAC One Node
      1. The Big Picture
      2. Upgrading to 11.2.0.2 or Higher
      3. Deploying RAC One Node Binaries
      4. Deploying a RAC One Node Database
        1. Satisfying Prerequisites
        2. Initiating DBCA’s Creation Process
        3. Parameters Specific to RAC One Node
      5. Managing RAC One Node Database
        1. Verifying Configuration Details
        2. Verifying the Online Relocation Status
        3. Stop and Start the Database
        4. Performing Online Database Relocation
        5. Handling Unplanned Node and Cluster Reboots
      6. Converting Between RAC One Node and Standard RAC
        1. Scaling Up to Standard RAC
        2. Scaling Down to RAC One Node
      7. Managing RAC One Node with Cloud Control 12c
        1. Database Relocation with Cloud Control 12c
        2. Third-Party Cold Failover vs. RAC One Node
      8. Summary
    23. Index