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## Chapter 3. Descriptive Statistics

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency

3.2 Measures of Position

3.3 Measures of Variation

3.4 Shape of Distributions

Important Equations

One-Minute Summary

Test Yourself

Besides the tables and charts discussed in Chapter 2, you can also summarize and describe numerical variables using descriptive measures that identify the properties of central tendency, variation, and shape.

### 3.1 Measures of Central Tendency

The data values for most numerical variables tend to group around a specific value. Measures of central tendency help describe to what extent this pattern holds for a specific numerical variable. This section discusses three commonly-used measures: the arithmetic mean, also known as the mean or average, the median, ...

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