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Essentials of Planning, Selecting, and Tailoring Interventions for Unique Learners by Jennifer T. Mascolo, Vincent C. Alfonso, Dawn P. Flanagan

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TenInterventions for Students with Executive Skills and Executive Functions Difficulties

George McCloskey

Caitlin Gilmartin

Betti Stanco Vitanza

To discuss interventions that address executive skills and executive functions difficulties, it is necessary to have a definition of executive functions as a starting point. The definition of executive functions provided here is a widely inclusive multidimensional theoretical model referred to as the Holarchical Model of Executive Functions (HMEF; McCloskey & Perkins, 2012; McCloskey, Perkins, & VanDivner, 2009).

Consistent with the common thread throughout the defining literature, the term executive functions can be viewed as an overarching developmental cognitive neuropsychological construct that is used to represent a set of neural mechanisms that are responsible for cueing, directing, and coordinating multiple aspects of perception, emotion, cognition, and action (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 1996; McCloskey et al., 2009; Stuss & Alexander, 2000). The HMEF, which anchors the discussion of executive functions in this chapter, is depicted visually in Figure 10.1. The HMEF is not discussed in detail here, but is elaborated fully in other sources (McCloskey & Perkins, 2012; McCloskey et al., 2009).

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Figure 10.1 Holarchical Model of Executive Functions

Source: Copyright © 2012 George McCloskey.

The nature and expression of executive ...

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