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Essentials of Planning, Selecting, and Tailoring Interventions for Unique Learners by Jennifer T. Mascolo, Vincent C. Alfonso, Dawn P. Flanagan

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EightIndividualizing Instruction For Students With Oral And Written Language Difficulties1

Virginia W. Berninger

Jasmin Niedo

This chapter is divided into five sections. In the first section, we use an evidence-based conceptual framework for functional language systems and levels of language to define language and explain what oral and written language difficulties may occur in individual students. In the second section, we provide a brief overview of the tools for assessing the four language systems and their levels, with focus on new research developments. In the third section, we discuss biological and environmental variables that are relevant to tailoring instruction individually and monitoring response to instruction for students with language difficulties. In the fourth section, we discuss the historical context in which educational professionals and researchers have grappled with meeting the language learning needs of students with developmental and learning disabilities and propose a proactive, best professional practices model for the future. In the fifth section, we offer general guidelines for tailoring instruction individually for oral and written language difficulties and describe case examples that illustrate these for students with pervasive (case 1) or specific (case 2) developmental disabilities or specific learning disabilities, despite otherwise normal development, in multi-word-level oral and written language learning disabilities (case 3), word-level reading ...

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