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Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineering

Book Description

Learn Chemical Reaction Engineering through Reasoning, Not Memorization

Essentials of Chemical Reaction Engineering is the complete, modern introduction to chemical reaction engineering for today’s undergraduate students. Starting from the strengths of his classic Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Fourth Edition, in this volume H. Scott Fogler added new material and distilled the essentials for undergraduate students.

Fogler’s unique way of presenting the material helps students gain a deep, intuitive understanding of the field’s essentials through reasoning, using a CRE algorithm, not memorization. He especially focuses on important new energy and safety issues, ranging from solar and biomass applications to the avoidance of runaway reactions.

Thoroughly classroom tested, this text reflects feedback from hundreds of students at the University of Michigan and other leading universities. It also provides new resources to help students discover how reactors behave in diverse situations–including many realistic, interactive simulations on DVD-ROM.

New Coverage Includes

  • Greater emphasis on safety: following the recommendations of the

  • Chemical Safety Board (CSB), discussion of crucial safety topics, including ammonium nitrate CSTR explosions, case studies of the nitroaniline explosion, and the T2 Laboratories batch reactor runaway

  • Solar energy conversions: chemical, thermal, and catalytic water spilling

  • Algae production for biomass

  • Steady-state nonisothermal reactor design: flow reactors with heat exchange

  • Unsteady-state nonisothermal reactor design with case studies of reactor explosions

  • About the DVD-ROM

    The DVD contains six additional, graduate-level chapters covering catalyst decay, external diffusion effects on heterogeneous reactions, diffusion and reaction, distribution of residence times for reactors, models for non-ideal reactors, and radial and axial temperature variations in tubular reactions. Extensive additional DVD resources include

  • Summary notes, Web modules, additional examples, derivations, audio commentary, and self-tests

  • Interactive computer games that review and apply important chapter concepts

  • Innovative “Living Example Problems” with Polymath code that can be loaded directly from the DVD so students can play with the solution to get an innate feeling of how reactors operate

  • A 15-day trial of Polymath™ is included, along with a link to the Fogler Polymath site

  • A complete, new AspenTech tutorial, and four complete example problems

  • Visual Encyclopedia of Equipment, Reactor Lab, and other intuitive tools

  • More than 500 PowerPoint slides of lecture notes

  • Additional updates, applications, and information are available at www.umich.edu/~essen and www.essentialsofcre.com.

    Table of Contents

    1. Title Page
    2. Copyright Page
    3. Dedicated to
      1. Dedicated to
    4. Contents
      1. Contents
    5. Preface
      1. Preface
      2. B.1 To Have Fun Learning Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE)
      3. B.2 To Develop a Fundamental Understanding of Reaction Engineering
      4. B.3 To Enhance Critical Thinking Skills
      5. B.4 To Enhance Creative Thinking Skills
    6. About the Author
      1. About the Author
    7. Chapter 1. Mole Balances
      1. Chapter 1. Mole Balances
      2. 1.4.1 Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
      3. 1.4.2 Tubular Reactor
      4. 1.4.3 Packed-Bed Reactor (PBR)
    8. Chapter 2. Conversion and Reactor Sizing
      1. Chapter 2. Conversion and Reactor Sizing
      2. 2.3.1 CSTR (Also Known as a Backmix Reactor or a Vat)
      3. 2.3.2 Tubular Flow Reactor (PFR)
      4. 2.3.3 Packed-Bed Reactor (PBR)
      5. 2.5.1 CSTRs in Series
      6. 2.5.2 PFRs in Series
      7. 2.5.3 Combinations of CSTRs and PFRs in Series
      8. 2.5.4 Comparing the CSTR and PFR Reactor Volumes and Reactor Sequencing
      9. 2.6.1 Space Time
      10. 2.6.2 Space Velocity
    9. Chapter 3. Rate Laws
      1. Chapter 3. Rate Laws
      2. 3.1.1 Relative Rates of Reaction
      3. 3.2.1 Power Law Models and Elementary Rate Laws
      4. 3.2.2 Nonelementary Rate Laws
      5. 3.2.3 Reversible Reactions
      6. Why is there an activation energy?
    10. Chapter 4. Stoichiometry
      1. Chapter 4. Stoichiometry
      2. 4.1.1 Equations for Batch Concentrations
      3. 4.2.1 Equations for Concentrations in Flow Systems
      4. 4.2.2 Liquid-Phase Concentrations
      5. 4.2.3 Gas Phase Concentrations
    11. Chapter 5. Isothermal Reactor Design: Conversion
      1. Chapter 5. Isothermal Reactor Design: Conversion
      2. 5.2.1 Batch Reaction Times
      3. 5.3.1 A Single CSTR
      4. 5.3.2 CSTRs in Series
      5. 5.5.1 Pressure Drop and the Rate Law
      6. 5.5.2 Flow Through a Packed Bed
      7. 5.5.3 Pressure Drop in Pipes
      8. 5.5.4 Analytical Solution for Reaction with Pressure Drop
    12. Chapter 6. Isothermal Reactor Design: Molar Flow Rates
      1. Chapter 6. Isothermal Reactor Design: Molar Flow Rates
      2. 6.2.1 Liquid Phase
      3. 6.2.2 Gas Phase
      4. Use of Membrane Reactors to Enhance Selectivity
      5. 6.6.1 Motivation for Using a Semibatch Reactor
      6. 6.6.2 Semibatch Reactor Mole Balances
      7. Good Alternatives (GA) on the DVD-ROM and on the Web
    13. Chapter 7. Collection and Analysis of Rate Data
      1. Chapter 7. Collection and Analysis of Rate Data
      2. 7.4.1 Graphical Differentiation Method
      3. 7.4.2 Finding the Rate Law Parameters
      4. Concentration-Time Data
      5. Model Discrimination
    14. Chapter 8. Multiple Reactions
      1. Chapter 8. Multiple Reactions
      2. 8.1.1 Types of Reactions
      3. 8.1.2 Selectivity
      4. 8.1.3 Yield
      5. 8.2.1 Modifications to the Chapter 6 CRE Algorithm for Multiple Reactions
      6. 8.3.1 Selectivity
      7. 8.3.2 Maximizing the Desired Product for One Reactant
      8. 8.3.3 Reactor Selection and Operating Conditions
      9. 8.5.1 Complex Reactions in a PBR
      10. 8.5.2 Multiple Reactions in a CSTR
    15. Chapter 9. Reaction Mechanisms, Pathways, Bioreactions, and Bioreactors
      1. Chapter 9. Reaction Mechanisms, Pathways, Bioreactions, and Bioreactors
      2. 9.1.1 Pseudo-Steady-State Hypothesis (PSSH)
      3. 9.1.2 Searching for a Mechanism
      4. 9.1.3 Chain Reactions
      5. 9.2.1 Enzyme–Substrate Complex
      6. 9.2.2 Mechanisms
      7. 9.2.3 Michaelis–Menten Equation
      8. 9.2.4 Batch Reactor Calculations for Enzyme Reactions
      9. 9.3.1 Competitive Inhibition
      10. 9.3.2 Uncompetitive Inhibition
      11. 9.3.3 Noncompetitive Inhibition (Mixed Inhibition)12
      12. 9.3.4 Substrate Inhibition
      13. Cell Growth and Division
      14. 9.4.1 Cell Growth
      15. 9.4.2 Rate Laws
      16. 9.4.3 Stoichiometry
      17. 9.4.4 Mass Balances
      18. 9.4.5 Chemostats
      19. 9.4.6 CSTR Bioreactor Operation
      20. 9.4.7 Wash-Out
    16. Chapter 10. Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors
      1. Chapter 10. Catalysis and Catalytic Reactors
      2. 10.1.1 Definitions
      3. 10.1.2 Catalyst Properties
      4. 10.1.3 Catalytic Gas-Solid Interactions
      5. 10.1.4 Classification of Catalysts
      6. Where Are We Heading?
      7. 10.2.1 Step 1 Overview: Diffusion from the Bulk to the External Surface of the Catalyst
      8. 10.2.2 Step 2 Overview: Internal Diffusion
      9. 10.2.3 Adsorption Isotherms
      10. 10.2.4 Surface Reaction
      11. 10.2.5 Desorption
      12. 10.2.6 The Rate-Limiting Step
      13. 10.3.1 Is the Adsorption of Cumene Rate-Limiting?
      14. 10.3.2 Is the Surface Reaction Rate-Limiting?
      15. 10.3.3 Is the Desorption of Benzene Rate-Limiting?
      16. 10.3.4 Summary of the Cumene Decomposition
      17. 10.3.5 Reforming Catalysts
      18. 10.3.6 Rate Laws Derived from the Pseudo-Steady-State Hypothesis (PSSH)
      19. 10.3.7 Temperature Dependence of the Rate Law
      20. 10.4.1 Deducing a Rate Law from the Experimental Data
      21. 10.4.2 Finding a Mechanism Consistent with Experimental Observations
      22. 10.4.3 Evaluation of the Rate Law Parameters
      23. 10.4.4 Reactor Design
      24. 10.5.1 Overview
      25. 10.5.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition
    17. Chapter 11. Nonisothermal Reactor Design–The Steady State Energy Balance and Adiabatic PFR Applications
      1. Chapter 11. Nonisothermal Reactor Design–The Steady State Energy Balance and Adiabatic PFR Applications
      2. 11.2.1 First Law of Thermodynamics
      3. 11.2.2 Evaluating the Work Term
      4. 11.2.3 Overview of Energy Balances
      5. 11.3.1 Dissecting the Steady-State Molar Flow Rates to Obtain the Heat of Reaction
      6. 11.3.2 Dissecting the Enthalpies
      7. 11.3.3 Relating ΔHRx(T), , and ΔCP
      8. 11.4.1 Adiabatic Energy Balance
      9. 11.4.2 Adiabatic Tubular Reactor
      10. 11.5.1 Equilibrium Conversion
      11. 11.5.2 Reactor Staging
    18. Chapter 12. Steady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design—Flow Reactors with Heat Exchange
      1. Chapter 12. Steady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design—Flow Reactors with Heat Exchange
      2. 12.1.1 Deriving the Energy Balance for a PFR
      3. 12.2.1 Co-Current Flow
      4. 12.2.2 Counter Current Flow
      5. 12.3.1 Applying the Algorithm to an Exothermic Reaction
      6. 12.3.2 Applying the Algorithm to an Endothermic Reaction
      7. 12.4.1 Heat Added to the Reactor,
      8. 12.5.1 Heat-Removed Term, R(T)
      9. 12.5.2 Heat-Generated Term, G(T)
      10. 12.5.3 Ignition-Extinction Curve
      11. 12.6.1 Energy Balance for Multiple Reactions in Plug-Flow Reactors
      12. 12.6.2 Parallel Reactions in a PFR
      13. 12.6.3 Energy Balance for Multiple Reactions in a CSTR
      14. 12.6.4 Series Reactions in a CSTR
      15. 12.6.5 Complex Reactions in a PFR
    19. Chapter 13. Unsteady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design
      1. Chapter 13. Unsteady-State Nonisothermal Reactor Design
      2. 13.2.1 Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor
      3. 13.2.2 Case History of a Batch Reactor with Interrupted Isothermal Operation Causing a Runaway Reaction
      4. 13.4.1 Startup
    20. Appendices
      1. Appendix A. Numerical Techniques
        1. Appendix A. Numerical Techniques
        2. A.3.A First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation
      2. Appendix B. Ideal Gas Constant and Conversion Factors
        1. Appendix B. Ideal Gas Constant and Conversion Factors
      3. Appendix C. Thermodynamic Relationships Involving the Equilibrium Constant
        1. Appendix C. Thermodynamic Relationships Involving the Equilibrium Constant1
      4. Appendix D. Nomenclature
        1. Appendix D. Nomenclature
      5. Appendix E. Software Packages
        1. Appendix E. Software Packages
        2. E.1.A About Polymath
        3. E.1.B Polymath Tutorials
      6. Appendix F. Rate Law Data
        1. Appendix F. Rate Law Data
      7. Appendix G. Open-Ended Problems
        1. Appendix G. Open-Ended Problems
      8. Appendix H. How to Use the DVD-ROM
        1. Appendix H. How to Use the DVD-ROM
        2. H.2.1 Global vs. Sequential Learners
        3. H.2.2 Active vs. Reflective Learners
        4. H.2.3 Sensing vs. Intuitive Learners
        5. H.2.4 Visual vs. Verbal Learners
    21. Index
    22. About the DVD-ROM
      1. About the DVD-ROM
    23. Footnotes
      1. Footnotes
      2. Preface
      3. Chapter 1
      4. Chapter 2
      5. Chapter 3
      6. Chapter 4
      7. Chapter 5
      8. Chapter 6
      9. Chapter 7
      10. Chapter 8
      11. Chapter 9
      12. Chapter 10
      13. Chapter 11
      14. Chapter 12
      15. Chapter 13
      16. Appendix C
      17. Appendix H