Quantum field theory of light
2.1 Light in media
The backbone of theoretical quantum optics is the quantum field theory of light, the quantum theory of the electromagnetic field. Quantum electrodynamics becomes surprisingly complicated if one insists on formulating it in a relativistically and gauge-invariant form, as one surely should do in elementary particle physics. Moreover, in quantum optics, we are concerned with light quanta in materials such as glass, with quantum electromagnetism in media, which is even more complicated. To cut a long story short, here we follow a minimalistic approach where we develop the essentials of quantum electrodynamics with as little technical effort as possible, sailing around the cliffs of relativistic ...