In this chapter, we turn to the study of statistics, which is concerned with the analysis of experimental data. In a book of this nature we cannot hope to do justice to such a large subject; indeed, many would argue that statistics belongs to the realm of experimental science rather than in a mathematics textbook. Nevertheless, physical scientists and engineers are regularly called upon to perform a statistical analysis of their data and to present their results in a statistical context. This justifies the inclusion of the subject in a book such as this, but we will concentrate on those aspects of direct relevance to the presentation of experimental data.1
17.1 Experiments, samples and populations
We may regard the product of any ...