**16**

**Probability**

All scientists will know the importance of experiment and observation and, equally, be aware that the results of some experiments depend to a degree on chance. For example, in an experiment to measure the heights of a random sample of people, we would not be in the least surprised if all the heights were found to be different; but, if the experiment were repeated often enough, we would expect to find some sort of regularity in the results. Statistics, which is the subject of the following chapter, is concerned with the analysis of real experimental data of this sort. In this chapter, however, we discuss probability, which, to a pure mathematician, is an entirely theoretical subject based on axioms and deductions from them. Although ...

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