Review of background topics
A.1 Arithmetic and geometry
For a logarithm to any base a (> 0), x = aloga x and
• For x > 0, its natural logarithm, loge x ≡ ln x is defined by x = eln x, where e = exp(1) and
• The exponential function and natural logarithm have the properties
• If is irrational, implies that a = c and b = d.
• To rationalize , write it as