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Essential Guide to Telecommunications, The, Third Edition by Annabel Z. Dodd

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Carriers

Because of improvements in fiber optic technologies, such as dense wave division multiplexing and the relative ease of building long distance networks alongside railroad tracks and highways, there is a proliferation of high-speed networks in much of the world. The increased competition and capacity has led to lower prices and to the commoditization of bandwidth. Integrated Network Providers who compete with incumbent local telephone companies are building fiber optic and some wireless facilities over which to sell local service in metropolitan areas. (Integrated Network Providers is another term for telecommunication carriers.) Utilities, with their years of experience in constructing fiber optic networks, are actively building telecommunications ...

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