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Essential Guide to Computing: The Story of Information Technology, The by E. Garrison Walters

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Protocol Stacks

A set of computer communication codes, which are known generically as protocols, normally are provided in a series of layers called a stack, or sometimes a suite. Different layers have different responsibilities. Most models of computer to computer communications describe something on the order of seven layers. While this can be a good choice for teaching future specialists in telecommunications, it's confusing to the less focused student. To simplify things, we'll just cover the bottom four layers and illustrate their relationships using the popular TCP/IP protocols, which operate at Layers 4 and 3, respectively.

If you like complicated things, don't despair. Using just four layers will leave plenty of room for complexity. Frankly, ...

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