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ESD: Design and Synthesis

Book Description

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) continues to impact semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics.

This book studies electrical overstress, ESD, and latchup from a whole-chip ESD design synthesis approach. It provides a clear insight into the integration of ESD protection networks from a generalist perspective, followed by examples in specific technologies, circuits, and chips. Uniquely both the semiconductor chip integration issues and floorplanning of ESD networks are covered from a 'top-down' design approach.

Look inside for extensive coverage on:

  • integration of cores, power bussing, and signal pins in DRAM, SRAM, CMOS image processing chips, microprocessors, analog products, RF components and how the integration influences ESD design and integration

  • architecturing of mixed voltage, mixed signal, to RF design for ESD analysis

  • floorplanning for peripheral and core I/O designs, and the implications on ESD and latchup

  • guard ring integration for both a 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' methodology addressing I/O guard rings, ESD guard rings, I/O to I/O, and I/O to core

  • classification of ESD power clamps and ESD signal pin circuitry, and how to make the correct choice for a given semiconductor chip

  • examples of ESD design for the state-of-the-art technologies discussed, including CMOS, BiCMOS, silicon on insulator (SOI), bipolar technology, high voltage CMOS (HVCMOS), RF CMOS, and smart power

  • practical methods for the understanding of ESD circuit power distribution, ground rule development, internal bus distribution, current path analysis, quality metrics

ESD: Design and Synthesis is a continuation of the author's series of books on ESD protection. It is an essential reference for: ESD, circuit, and semiconductor engineers; design synthesis team leaders; layout design, characterisation, floorplanning, test and reliability engineers; technicians; and groundrule and test site developers in the manufacturing and design of semiconductor chips.

It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students in electrical engineering, semiconductor sciences, and manufacturing sciences, and on courses involving the design of ESD devices, chips and systems. This book offers a useful insight into the issues that confront modern technology as we enter the nano-electronic era.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. ESD Series By Steven H. Voldman
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. About the Author
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1: ESD Design Synthesis
    1. 1.1 ESD Design Synthesis and Architecture Flow
    2. 1.2 ESD Design – The Signal Path and the Alternate Current Path
    3. 1.3 ESD Electrical Circuit and Schematic Architecture Concepts
    4. 1.4 Mapping Semiconductor Chips and ESD Designs
    5. 1.5 ESD Chip Architecture, and ESD Test Standards
    6. 1.6 ESD Testing
    7. 1.7 ESD Chip Architecture and ESD Alternative Current Paths
    8. 1.8 ESD Networks, Sequencing, and Chip Architecture
    9. 1.9 ESD Design Synthesis – Latchup-Free ESD Networks
    10. 1.10 ESD Design Concepts – Buffering – Inter-Device
    11. 1.11 ESD Design Concepts – Ballasting – Inter-Device
    12. 1.12 ESD Design Concepts – Ballasting – Intra-Device
    13. 1.13 ESD Design Concepts – Distributed Load Techniques
    14. 1.14 ESD Design Concepts – Dummy Circuits
    15. 1.15 ESD Design Concepts – Power Supply De-Coupling
    16. 1.16 ESD Design Concepts – Feedback Loop De-Coupling
    17. 1.17 ESD Layout and Floorplan-Related Concepts
    18. 1.18 ESD Design Concepts – Analog Circuit Techniques
    19. 1.19 ESD Design Concepts – Wire Bonds
    20. 1.20 Design Rules
    21. 1.21 Summary and Closing Comments
    22. References
  10. Chapter 2: ESD Architecture and Floorplanning
    1. 2.1 ESD Design Floorplan
    2. 2.2 Peripheral I/O Design
    3. 2.3 Lumped ESD Power Clamp in Peripheral I/O Design Architecture
    4. 2.4 Lumped ESD Power Clamp in Peripheral I/O Design Architecture – Master/Slave ESD Power Clamp System
    5. 2.5 Array I/O
    6. 2.6 ESD Architecture – Dummy Bus Architectures
    7. 2.7 Native Voltage Power Supply Architecture
    8. 2.8 Mixed-Voltage Architecture
    9. 2.9 Mixed-Signal Architecture
    10. 2.10 Mixed-System Architecture – Digital and Analog CMOS
    11. 2.11 Mixed-Signal Architecture – Digital, Analog, and RF Architecture
    12. 2.12 Summary and Closing Comments
    13. References
  11. Chapter 3: ESD Power Grid Design
    1. 3.1 ESD Power Grid
    2. 3.2 Semiconductor Chip Impedance
    3. 3.3 Interconnect Failure and Dynamic on-Resistance
    4. 3.4 Interconnect Wire and Via Guidelines
    5. 3.5 ESD Power Grid Resistance
    6. 3.6 Power Grid Layout Design
    7. 3.7 ESD Specification Power Grid Considerations
    8. 3.8 Power Grid Design Synthesis – ESD Design Rule Checking Methods
    9. 3.9 Summary and Closing Comments
    10. References
  12. Chapter 4: ESD Power Clamps
    1. 4.1 ESD Power Clamps
    2. 4.2 Design Synthesis of ESD Power Clamps
    3. 4.3 Design Synthesis of ESD Power Clamp – The ESD Power Clamp Shunting Element
    4. 4.4 ESD Power Clamp Issues
    5. 4.5 ESD Power Clamp Design
    6. 4.6 ESD Power Clamp Design Synthesis – Bipolar ESD Power Clamps
    7. 4.7 Master/Slave ESD Power Clamp Systems
    8. 4.8 Summary and Closing Comments
    9. References
  13. Chapter 5: ESD Signal Pin Networks Design and Synthesis
    1. 5.1 ESD Signal Pin Structures
    2. 5.2 ESD Input Structures – ESD and Bond Pads Layout
    3. 5.3 ESD Design Synthesis and Layout of MOSFETs
    4. 5.4 ESD Design Synthesis and Layout of Diodes
    5. 5.5 ESD Design Synthesis of SCRs
    6. 5.6 ESD Design Synthesis and Layout of Resistors
    7. 5.7 ESD Design Synthesis of Inductors
    8. 5.8 Summary and Closing Comments
    9. References
  14. Chapter 6: Guard Ring Design and Synthesis
    1. 6.1 Guard Ring Design and Integration
    2. 6.2 Guard Ring Characterization
    3. 6.3 Semiconductor Chip Guard Ring Seal
    4. 6.4 I/O to Core Guard Rings
    5. 6.5 I/O to I/O Guard Rings
    6. 6.6 Within I/O Guard Rings
    7. 6.7 ESD Signal Pin Guard Rings
    8. 6.8 Library Element Guard Rings
    9. 6.9 Mixed-Signal Guard Rings – Digital to Analog
    10. 6.10 Mixed-Voltage Guard Rings – High Voltage to Low Voltage
    11. 6.11 Passive and Active Guard Rings
    12. 6.12 Trench Guard Rings
    13. 6.13 TSV Guard Rings
    14. 6.14 Guard Ring DRC
    15. 6.15 Guard Rings and Computer Aided Design Methods
    16. 6.16 Summary and Closing Comments
    17. References
  15. Chapter 7: ESD Full-Chip Design Integration and Architecture
    1. 7.1 Design Synthesis and Integration
    2. 7.2 Digital Design
    3. 7.3 Custom Design vs. Standard Cell Design
    4. 7.4 Memory ESD Design
    5. 7.5 Microprocessor ESD Design
    6. 7.6 Application-Specific Integrated Circuits
    7. 7.7 CMOS Image Processing Chip Design
    8. 7.8 Mixed-Signal Architecture
    9. 7.9 Summary and Closing Comments
    10. References
  16. Index