O'Reilly logo

Erlang Programming by Francesco Cesarini, Simon Thompson

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Message Passing

Processes communicate with each other using message passing. Messages are sent using the Pid ! Message construct, where Pid is a valid process identifier and Message is a value from any Erlang data type (see Figure 4-2).

Message passing

Figure 4-2. Message passing

Each Erlang process has a mailbox in which incoming messages are stored. When a message is sent, it is copied from the sending process into the recipient’s mailbox for retrieval. Messages are stored in the mailbox in the order in which they are delivered. If two messages are sent from one process to another, the messages are guaranteed to be received in the same order in which they are sent. This guarantee is not extended to messages sent from different processes, however, and in this case the ordering is VM-dependent.

Sending a message will never fail; so if you try sending a message to a nonexistent process, it is thrown away without generating an error. Finally, message passing is asynchronous: a sending process will not be suspended after sending a message; it will instead immediately continue executing the next expression in its code.

To test sending messages in the shell, let’s use the self/0 BIF, which returns the pid of the process in which it is evaluated. The Erlang shell is nothing other than an Erlang process in a read-evaluate-print loop, waiting for you to type in an expression. When you terminate an expression followed by a full stop (.) and press Enter, the shell evaluates what you typed in and prints out a result. Since the shell is an Erlang process, there is nothing stopping us from sending messages to it. To retrieve and display all the messages sent to the shell process, and therefore currently held in the process mailbox, you can use the shell command flush/0, which also has the effect of removing (or flushing) those messages from the mailbox:

1> Pid = self().
2> Pid ! hello.
3> flush().
Shell got hello
4> <0.30.0> ! hello.
* 1: syntax error before: '<'
5> Pid2 = pid(0,30,0).
6> Pid2 ! hello2.
7> flush().
Shell got hello2

What is happening in the preceding example? In command 1, the BIF self() returns a pid, which in the shell is bound to the variable Pid and displayed as <0.30.0>. In commands 2 and 3 you see the message being sent to the Pid, and then flushed from the mailbox, using the flush() command in the shell.

You cannot type pids directly in a module or in the shell, as in both cases, they result in a syntax error; this is shown for the shell in command 4. You need either to bind the process identifiers to a variable when BIFs such as self and spawn return them, or generate a pid using the pid/3 shell function, as shown in command 5 and used in command 6. The flush() in command 7 shows that the message indeed went to the shell process.

Pid ! Message is a valid Erlang expression, and as with all valid expressions in Erlang, it has to return a value. The value, in this case, is the message sent. So if, for example, you need to send the same message to many processes, you can write either a sequence of message sends, such as Pid1!Msg,Pid2!Msg,Pid3!Msg, or a single expression, such as Pid3!Pid2!Pid1!Message, which is equivalent to writing Pid3!(Pid2!(Pid1!Message)), where Pid1!Message returns the message to send to Pid2, which in turn returns the message to be sent to Pid3.

As we already said, sending messages to nonexistent processes will always succeed. To test this, let’s make the shell process crash with an illegal operation. Crashing is the same as an abnormal process termination, something that is considered normal in Erlang, in the sense that Erlang provides mechanisms to deal with it. We will cover abnormal process terminations in more detail in the next chapter, so until then, do not get alarmed. Making the shell crash will automatically result in a new shell process—in this example with pid <0.38.0>—being spawned by the runtime system.

With this in mind, we locate the shell pid, make the shell process terminate, and then send a message to it. Based on the semantics of message passing, this will result in the message being thrown away:

7> self().
8> 1/0.
** exception error: bad argument in an arithmetic expression
     in operator  '/'/2
        called as 1 / 0
9> self().
10> pid(0,30,0) ! hello.
11> flush().

The reason that message passing and spawn always succeed, even if the recipient process does not exist or the spawned process crashes on creation, has to do with process dependencies, or rather, their deliberate lack of dependencies. We say that process A depends on process B when the fact of B terminating can prevent A from functioning correctly.

Process dependencies are very important and will often influence your design. In massively concurrent systems, you do not want processes to depend on each other unless explicitly specified, and in such cases, you want to have as few dependencies as possible. To give a concrete example of this, imagine an IM server concurrently handling thousands of messages being exchanged by its users. Each message is handled by a process spawned for that particular function. If, due to a bug, one of these processes terminates, you would lose that particular message. Ensuring a lack of dependency between this process and the processes handling all the other messages guarantees that these messages are safely processed and delivered to their recipients regardless of the bug.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required