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Erlang Programming

Cover of Erlang Programming by Simon Thompson... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Erlang Programming
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. Foreword
    3. Preface
      1. Francesco: Why Erlang?
      2. Simon: Why Erlang?
      3. Who Should Read This Book?
      4. How to Read This Book
      5. Conventions Used in This Book
      6. Using Code Examples
      7. Safari® Books Online
      8. How to Contact Us
      9. Acknowledgments
    4. 1. Introduction
      1. Why Should I Use Erlang?
      2. The History of Erlang
      3. Erlang’s Characteristics
      4. Erlang and Multicore
      5. Case Studies
      6. How Should I Use Erlang?
    5. 2. Basic Erlang
      1. Integers
      2. The Erlang Shell
      3. Floats
      4. Atoms
      5. Booleans
      6. Tuples
      7. Lists
      8. Term Comparison
      9. Variables
      10. Complex Data Structures
      11. Pattern Matching
      12. Functions
      13. Modules
      14. Exercises
    6. 3. Sequential Erlang
      1. Conditional Evaluations
      2. Guards
      3. Built-in Functions
      4. Recursion
      5. Runtime Errors
      6. Handling Errors
      7. Library Modules
      8. The Debugger
      9. Exercises
    7. 4. Concurrent Programming
      1. Creating Processes
      2. Message Passing
      3. Receiving Messages
      4. Registered Processes
      5. Timeouts
      6. Benchmarking
      7. Process Skeletons
      8. Tail Recursion and Memory Leaks
      9. A Case Study on Concurrency-Oriented Programming
      10. Race Conditions, Deadlocks, and Process Starvation
      11. The Process Manager
      12. Exercises
    8. 5. Process Design Patterns
      1. Client/Server Models
      2. A Process Pattern Example
      3. Finite State Machines
      4. Event Managers and Handlers
      5. Exercises
    9. 6. Process Error Handling
      1. Process Links and Exit Signals
      2. Robust Systems
      3. Exercises
    10. 7. Records and Macros
      1. Records
      2. Macros
      3. Exercises
    11. 8. Software Upgrade
      1. Upgrading Modules
      2. Behind the Scenes
      3. Upgrading Processes
      4. The .erlang File
      5. Exercise
    12. 9. More Data Types and High-Level Constructs
      1. Functional Programming for Real
      2. Funs and Higher-Order Functions
      3. List Comprehensions
      4. Binaries and Serialization
      5. References
      6. Exercises
    13. 10. ETS and Dets Tables
      1. ETS Tables
      2. Dets Tables
      3. A Mobile Subscriber Database Example
      4. Exercises
    14. 11. Distributed Programming in Erlang
      1. Distributed Systems in Erlang
      2. Distributed Computing in Erlang: The Basics
      3. The epmd Process
      4. Exercises
    15. 12. OTP Behaviors
      1. Introduction to OTP Behaviors
      2. Generic Servers
      3. Supervisors
      4. Applications
      5. Release Handling
      6. Other Behaviors and Further Reading
      7. Exercises
    16. 13. Introducing Mnesia
      1. When to Use Mnesia
      2. Configuring Mnesia
      3. Transactions
      4. Partitioned Networks
      5. Further Reading
      6. Exercises
    17. 14. GUI Programming with wxErlang
      1. wxWidgets
      2. wxErlang: An Erlang Binding for wxWidgets
      3. A First Example: MicroBlog
      4. The MiniBlog Example
      5. Obtaining and Running wxErlang
      6. Exercises
    18. 15. Socket Programming
      1. User Datagram Protocol
      2. Transmission Control Protocol
      3. The inet Module
      4. Further Reading
      5. Exercises
    19. 16. Interfacing Erlang with Other Programming Languages
      1. An Overview of Interworking
      2. Interworking with Java
      3. C Nodes
      4. Erlang from the Unix Shell: erl_call
      5. Port Programs
      6. Library Support for Communication
      7. Linked-in Drivers and the FFI
      8. Exercises
    20. 17. Trace BIFs, the dbg Tracer, and Match Specifications
      1. Introduction
      2. The Trace BIFs
      3. Tracing Calls with the trace_pattern BIF
      4. The dbg Tracer
      5. Match Specifications: The fun Syntax
      6. Match Specifications: The Nuts and Bolts
      7. Further Reading
      8. Exercises
    21. 18. Types and Documentation
      1. Types in Erlang
      2. TypEr: Success Types and Type Inference
      3. Documentation with EDoc
      4. Exercises
    22. 19. EUnit and Test-Driven Development
      1. Test-Driven Development
      2. EUnit
      3. The EUnit Infrastructure
      4. Testing State-Based Systems
      5. Testing Concurrent Programs in Erlang
      6. Exercises
    23. 20. Style and Efficiency
      1. Applications and Modules
      2. Processes and Concurrency
      3. Stylistic Conventions
      4. Coding Strategies
      5. Efficiency
      6. And Finally...
    24. A. Using Erlang
      1. Getting Started with Erlang
      2. Tools for Erlang
      3. Where to Learn More
    25. Index
    26. About the Authors
    27. Colophon
    28. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Chapter 1. Introduction

Why are we really excited about introducing you to Erlang? What do we feel is really special about the language? Its lightweight concurrency model with massive process scalability independent of the underlying operating system is second to none. With its approach that avoids shared data, Erlang is the perfect fit for multicore processors, in effect solving many of the synchronization problems and bottlenecks that arise with many conventional programming languages. Its declarative nature makes Erlang programs short and compact, and its built-in features make it ideal for fault-tolerant, soft real-time systems. Erlang also comes with very strong integration capabilities, so Erlang systems can be seamlessly incorporated into larger systems. This means that gradually bringing Erlang into a system and displacing less-capable conventional languages is not at all unusual.

Although Erlang might have been around for some time, the language itself, the virtual machine, and its libraries have been keeping pace with the rapidly changing requirements of the software industry. They are constantly being improved by a competent, enthusiastic, and dedicated team, aided by computer science researchers from universities around the world.

This introduction gives a high-level overview of the characteristics and features that have made Erlang so successful, providing insight into the context in which the language was designed, and how this influenced its current shape. Using case studies from commercial, research, and open source projects, we talk about how Erlang is used for real, comparing it with other languages and highlighting its strengths. We conclude by explaining the approaches that have worked best for us when running Erlang projects.

Why Should I Use Erlang?

What makes Erlang the best choice for your project? It depends on what you are looking to build. If you are looking into writing a number-crunching application, a graphics-intensive system, or client software running on a mobile handset, then sorry, you bought the wrong book. But if your target system is a high-level, concurrent, robust, soft real-time system that will scale in line with demand, make full use of multicore processors, and integrate with components written in other languages, Erlang should be your choice. As Tim Bray, director of Web Technologies at Sun Microsystems, expressed in his keynote at OSCON in July 2008:

If somebody came to me and wanted to pay me a lot of money to build a large scale message handling system that really had to be up all the time, could never afford to go down for years at a time, I would unhesitatingly choose Erlang to build it in.

Many companies are using Erlang in their production systems:

  • Amazon uses Erlang to implement SimpleDB, providing database services as a part of the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).

  • Yahoo! uses it in its social bookmarking service, Delicious, which has more than 5 million users and 150 million bookmarked URLs.

  • Facebook uses Erlang to power the backend of its chat service, handling more than 100 million active users.

  • T-Mobile uses Erlang in its SMS and authentication systems.

  • Motorola is using Erlang in call processing products in the public-safety industry.

  • Ericsson uses Erlang in its support nodes, used in GPRS and 3G mobile networks worldwide.

The most popular open source Erlang applications include the following:

  • The 3D subdivision modeler Wings 3D, used to model and texture polygon meshes.

  • The Ejabberd system, which provides an Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) based instant messaging (IM) application server.

  • The CouchDB “schema-less” document-oriented database, providing scalability across multicore and multiserver clusters.

  • The MochiWeb library that provides support for building lightweight HTTP servers. It is used to power services such as MochiBot and MochiAds, which serve dynamically generated content to millions of viewers daily.

  • RabbitMQ, an AMQP messaging protocol implementation. AMQP is an emerging standard for high-performance enterprise messaging.

Although Uppsala University has for many years led the way with research on Erlang through the High Performance Erlang Project (HiPE), many other universities around the world are not far behind. They include the University of Kent in the United Kingdom and Eötvös Loránd University in Hungary, which are both working on refactoring tools. The Universidad Politécnica de Madrid of Spain together with Chalmers University of Technology and the IT University (both in Sweden) are working on Erlang property-based testing tools that are changing the way people verify Erlang programs.

With these companies, open source projects, and universities, we have just scratched the surface of what has today become a vibrant international community spread across six continents. Blogs, user groups, mailing lists, and dedicated sites are now helping to take the community to its next level.

The suitability of Erlang for server-side software has its roots in the history of the language, as it was originally developed to solve problems in a subset of this particular space, namely the telecom sector, and so it’s worth looking back to the invention of Erlang in the 1980s.

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