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Epigenetics in Health and Disease by Olga Kovalchuk Ph.D., MD, Igor Kovalchuk Ph.D., MD

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13. Paramutation, transactivation, transvection, and cosuppression—silencing of homologous sequences

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves mitotically and meiotically stable but potentially reversible modifications not including changes in DNA sequence. Paramutation is one such epigenetic phenomena that involves changes in expression of one allele upon interaction with another allele. The interaction involves transmission of an epigenetically regulated expression state from one homologous sequence to another. Paramutation was first described in maize but has also been reported in other organisms as well as in fungi, tomato, pea, and mouse. The exact mechanisms triggering paramutation are not known. In this chapter, two major models ...

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