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Epigenetics in Health and Disease by Olga Kovalchuk Ph.D., MD, Igor Kovalchuk Ph.D., MD

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10. Non-coding RNAs across the kingdoms—animals

Animals express all the groups of non-coding RNAs described in Chapter 9, “Non-Coding RNAs Across the Kingdoms—Protista and Fungi.” Among several classes of small RNAs that have been discovered, three main categories prevail: microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These RNAs are primarily found eukaryotes, although the Argonaute proteins and RNAs associated with them can also be found in some bacteria and archaea. Among the three major groups, siRNAs and miRNAs that derive from double-stranded RNA precursor are most common. They are found in most phylogenetic groups of animals and are shown to be involved in a variety of physiological functions. ...

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