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Environmental Impacts on Underground Power Distribution

Book Description

The successful transmission of electrical power beneath the surface of the earth depends on a number of factors including ambient temperature, sheath bonding, cable laying depth, and especially the formation of dry zones around underground cables. Environmental Impacts on Underground Power Distribution studies the factors which affect the maximum current rating of subterranean power cables as well as various methods to maximize electrical current transmission. Focusing on the latest tools, methodologies, and research in the field, this publication is designed for use by electrical engineers, academicians, researchers, and upper-level students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
    1. Mission
    2. Coverage
  5. Preface
  6. Chapter 1: Underground Power Cable Construction
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1.1 CABLES ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS
    3. 1.2 CABLE CONSTRUCTION
    4. 1.3 CABLE SPECIFICATION
    5. 1.4 CONCEPT OF CABLE DESIGN
    6. 1.5 COMMON TYPES OF CABLES
    7. 1.6 CABLE ACCESSORIES
    8. 1.7 STRESS GRADIENTS
    9. 1.8 CREEPAGE EXTENSION SHEDS
    10. 1.9 CORROSION OF UNDERGROUND CABLES
    11. REFERENCES
  7. Chapter 2: Cable Standards
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 2.1 STANDARDS
    3. 2.2 (IEC) INTERNATIONAL ELECTRO-TECHNICAL COMMISSION OF UNDERGROUND POWER CABLES
    4. 2.3 BRITISH STANDARDS (BS)
    5. 2.4 CENELEC (EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR ELECTRO-TECHNICAL STANDARDIZATION)
    6. 2.5 ICEA. (INSULATED CABLE ENGINEERS ASSOCIATION)
    7. 2.6 ISO STANDARDS
    8. 2.7 DIN VDE
    9. REFERENCES
  8. Chapter 3: Underground Cables Layout
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 3.1 TREFOIL AND FLAT FORMATION CABLES LAYOUT
    3. 3.2 PROTECTION OF THE CABLES FROM MOISTURE
    4. 3.3 GENERAL DRUM HANDLING
    5. 3.4 POWER CABLE INSTALLATION GUIDE ACCORDING TO IEEE STANDARDS
    6. 3.5 HANDLING AND STORAGE GUIDELINES
    7. 3.6 DIAMETERS OF NONE JACKETED CABLE ASSEMBLIES
    8. 3.7 PULL BOXES
    9. 3.8 CABLE LUBRICATION SELECTION
    10. 3.9 INSTALLATION IN CONDUIT
    11. 3.10 ALLOWABLE TENSION ON PULLING DEVICE
    12. 3.11 CAUTION
    13. 3.12 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
    14. 3.13 CONFIGURATION
    15. 3.14 INSTALLATION IN CABLE TRAY
    16. 3.15 CABLES BURRED DIRECTLY IN EARTH
    17. 3.16 EXCEPTION
    18. 3.17 TRENCHING
    19. 3.18 FIELD REMOVAL OF MOISTURE FROM POWER CABLES
    20. 3.19 FIELD TESTING
    21. 3.20 CABLE REPAIRS
    22. 3.21 ELECTRICAL COLOR CODE
    23. REFERENCES
  9. Chapter 4: Dry Band Formation around Underground Cable
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 4.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION
    3. 4.2 METHODS USED FOR CALCULATING THE CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY OF UNDER GROUND CABLES
    4. 4.3 SURVEY OF EXPERIMENTAL WORK
    5. 4.4 OVERLOAD CAPACITY
    6. 4.5 MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING CABLE AMPACITY
    7. 4.6 SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS
    8. 4.7 EFFECT OF DRY OUT ZONES ON CABLE INSULATION
    9. 4.8 DRY ZONE RADIUS CALCULATIONS
    10. REFERENCES
  10. Chapter 5: Experimental Analysis of Backfill Soils
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 5.1 SOIL SAMPLES UNDER TESTING
    3. 5.2 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION
    4. 5.3 TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF THE SOIL PARTICLES
    5. 5.4 THERMAL TEST FOR STUDYING THE DRYING OUT PHENOMENON IN SANDY SOILS
    6. REFERENCES
  11. Chapter 6: Experimental Study of Dry Zone Formation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 6.1 THE RECORDED TEMPERATURE AGAINST TIME FOR THE TESTED SAND TYPES
    3. 6.2 DRY BAND FORMATION ANALYSIS
    4. 6.3 SUMMARY OF THE OBTAINED RESULTS
    5. REFERENCES
  12. Chapter 7: De-Rating Factor Due to the Dry-Band Formation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 7.1 DE-RATING FACTOR DEFINITION AND CALCULATION
    3. 7.2 APPLICATIONS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF CABLES
    4. 7.3 DE-RATING FACTOR
    5. 7.4 HEAT FLOW IN THE UNDERGROUND POWER CABLES
    6. 7.5 FINITE ELEMENT MODEL
    7. 7.6 DE-RATING FACTORS FOR CROSS SECTION AREA OF METAL SCREEN
    8. REFERENCES
  13. Chapter 8: Sheath Bonding and Grounding
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    3. 8.2 SHEATH PHENOMENA
    4. 8.3 TYPES OF METALLIC SHEATH LOSSES
    5. 8.4 CONTINUOUS CROSS-BONDING METHOD
    6. 8.5 IMPEDANCE BONDING METHODS
    7. 8.6 RESISTANCE BONDING METHOD
    8. 8.7 MODERN TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE THE SHEATH CURRENTS AND LOSSES
    9. REFERENCES
  14. Chapter 9: Effect of Dry-Zone Formation around Underground Power Cables on Their Ratings
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 9.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
    3. 9.2 DE-RATING FACTOR DUE TO THE DRY BAND FORMATION
    4. 9.3 INCREASING THE UNDERGROUND CABLES CAPACITY BY USING ARTIFICIAL BACKFILL MATERIALS
    5. 9.4 SOIL SAMPLES UNDER TESTING
    6. 9.5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    7. 9.6 MAXIMUM CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY
    8. 9.7 TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION AROUND UNDERGROUND CABLE
    9. REFERENCES
  15. Chapter 10: Factors Affecting the Sheath Losses in Single-Core Underground Power Cables
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 10.1 CABLE LAYOUTS FORMATION
    3. 10.2 MATHEMATICAL ALGORITHM
    4. 10.3 FACTORS AFFECTING THE SHEATH LOSSES IN SINGLE-CORE UNDERGROUND POWER CABLES
    5. REFERENCES
  16. Chapter 11: Sheath Overvoltage Due to External Faults in Specially Bonded Cable System
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 11.1 INTRODUCTION
    3. 11.2 MATHEMATICAL ALGORITHM
    4. 11.3 CASE STUDY
    5. 11.4 OBTAINED RESULTS
    6. 11.5 DISCUSSION OF THE OBTAINED RESULTS
    7. REFERENCES
  17. Chapter 12: Testing of Underground Power Cables
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 12.1 TESTING BY AC AND DC
    3. 12.2 VISUAL INSPECTION
    4. 12.3 CABLE INSULATION TESTING
    5. 12.4 OVER-POTENTIAL TESTING
    6. 12.5 DETAILS OF CABLE TESTING
    7. 12.6 SUMMARY OF TESTS CARRIED OUT ON CABLES
    8. REFERENCES
  18. Chapter 13: Electrical and Water Treeing of Cable Insulation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 13.1 INTRODUCTION
    3. 13.2 PARTIAL DISCHARGES OCCURRENCE
    4. 13.3 DISCHARGE PROCESS IN VOIDS
    5. 13.4 DEGRADING EFFECT IN SOLID INSULATION
    6. 13.5 CORONA DISCHARGE
    7. 13.6 TYPICAL INSTALLATION DEFECTS IN XLPE POWER CABLE SYSTEM
    8. REFERENCES
  19. Chapter 14: Partial Discharges Measurements for Power Cable Insulation System
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 14.1 ON-SITE PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS
    3. 14.2 PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT LABORATORY
    4. 14.3 DIELECTRIC LOSS AND CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENTS
    5. 14.4 ON- SITE TESTING OF CABLES USING VARIABLE FREQUENCY TEST SYSTEM
    6. REFERENCES
  20. Chapter 15: Cable Fault Location
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 15.1 FAULT LOCATOR OVERVIEW
    3. 15.2 SELECTING A LOCATOR
    4. 15.3 HOOKUPS
    5. 15.4 CABLE ROUTE TRACERS/CABLE LOCATORS
    6. 15.5 USING THE RECEIVER
    7. 15.6 HOW TO SEE UNDERGROUND CABLE PROBLEMS (OPERATING METHODS)
    8. 15.7 SPLIT BOX PIPE AND CABLE LOCATOR
    9. 15.8 ACCURATE TRACE CABLE ROUTE TRACER AND FAULT LOCATION
    10. REFERENCES
  21. Compilation of References
  22. About the Author