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Enterprise Model Patterns: Describing the World (UML Version)

Book Description

Here you'll find one key to the development of a successful information system: Clearly capture and communicate both the abstract and concrete building blocks of data that describe your organization.

In 1995, David Hay published Data Model Patterns: Conventions of Thought - the groundbreaking book on how to use standard data models to describe the standard business situations. Enterprise Model Patterns: Describing the World builds on the concepts presented there, adds 15 years of practical experience, and presents a more comprehensive view.

You will learn how to apply both the abstract and concrete elements of your enterprise's architectural data model through four levels of abstraction:

Level 0: An abstract template that underlies the Level 1 model that follows, plus two meta models:

  • Information Resources. In addition to books, articles, and e-mail notes, it also includes photographs, videos, and sound recordings.

  • Accounting. Accounting is remarkable because it is itself a modeling language. It takes a very different approach than data modelers in that instead of using entities and entity classes that represent things in the world, it is concerned with accounts that represent bits of value to the organization.

Level 1: An enterprise model that is generic enough to apply to any company or government agency, but concrete enough to be readily understood by all. It describes:

  • People and Organization. Who is involved with the business? The people involved are not only the employees within the organization, but customers, agents, and others with whom the organization comes in contact. Organizations of interest include the enterprise itself and its own internal departments, as well as customers, competitors, government agencies, and the like.

  • Geographic Locations. Where is business conducted? A geographic location may be either a geographic area (defined as any bounded area on the Earth), a geographic point (used to identify a particular location), or, if you are an oil company for example, a geographic solid (such as an oil reserve).

  • Assets. What tangible items are used to carry out the business? These are any physical things that are manipulated, sometimes as products, but also as the means to producing products and services.

  • Activities. How is the business carried out? This model not only covers services offered, but also projects and any other kinds of activities. In addition, the model describes the events that cause activities to happen.

  • Time

Level 2: A more detailed model describing specific functional areas:

  • Facilities

  • Human Resources

  • Communications and Marketing

  • Contracts

  • Manufacturing

  • The Laboratory

Level 3: Examples of the details a model can have to address what is truly unique in a particular industry. Here you see how to address the unique bits in areas as diverse as:

  • Criminal Justice. The model presented here is based on the Global Justice XML Data Model (GJXDM).

  • Microbiology

  • Banking. The model presented here is the result of working for four different banks and then adding some thought to come up with something different from what is currently in any of them.

  • Highways. The model here is derived from a project in a Canadian Provincial Highway Department, and addresses the question "what is a road"?

Table of Contents

  1. Contents at a Glance
  2. Contents
  3. Maps – Geographic Descriptions of the World
  4. Data Modeling – Business Descriptions of the World
  5. Business vs. Systems Issues
  6. Fundamentals of the Business
  7. Clarity
  8. The Response: This Book
  9. In Summary
  10. Notation Conventions
    1. UML on the Prowl
    2. Your Author Surrenders
    3. Warning to Data Modelers
    4. Warning to UML Modelers
    5. A Peace Offering
    6. The Notation
      1. Entity Classes (and Objects)
      2. Sub-types and Super-types
      3. Attributes
      4. Relationships
      5. Unique Identifiers
  11. Aesthetic Conventions
    1. Straighten Lines
    2. Starry Skies Orientation
    3. Limit Number of (Highlighted) Boxes
    4. Follow Accepted Graphic Design Principles
  12. Architectural Conventions
    1. About Abstraction
  13. In Summary
  14. Levels of Abstraction
  15. The Organization of the Book
  16. Parties
  17. Party Relationships
  18. Party Identifiers and Names
    1. Constraints
  19. Party Characteristics
  20. Derived Characteristics
  21. Characteristics and Party Types
  22. Summary
  23. Geographic Location
  24. Geographic Location Relationships
  25. Geographic Names
  26. Geographic Identifiers
  27. Geographic Location Characteristics
  28. Derived Characteristics
  29. Characteristics and Geographic Location Types
  30. Geographic Roles
  31. Summary
  32. About Assets
  33. Assets, Asset Types, and Asset Specifications
  34. Asset Structures
  35. Naming and Identifying Assets
  36. Describing Assets
  37. Derived Characteristics
  38. Asset Roles
  39. Summary
  40. Defining Activities
  41. Naming and Identifying Activities
  42. Dividing up Activities
    1. Approach 1 – Steps and Projects
    2. Approach 2 – Activity Structures
  43. Activity Characteristics
  44. Derived Characteristics
  45. Events
  46. Activity Roles
  47. Summary
  48. Capturing Time with Attributes
  49. Capturing Time with Entity Classes
  50. Summary
  51. Thing and Thing Type
  52. Things and the Enterprise Model
  53. Thing Relationship
  54. Thing Names and Identifiers
  55. Thing Characteristics
    1. Derived Characteristics
  56. Thing Characteristic Constraints
  57. Thing Role
  58. A Word about Language
  59. Summary
  60. Information Resources
  61. Information Resource Relationships
  62. Concepts
    1. Information Resources and Concepts
  63. Distribution
  64. Dispositions
  65. Summary
  66. Accounts
    1. Rolling up Accounts
  67. Accounting Transactions
  68. Accounting Transaction Rules
  69. Connections to the Real World
    1. Cost Center Assignments
    2. Transaction Assignments
  70. Summary
  71. Parties and Facilities
    1. Addresses
  72. Geographic Locations and Facilities
    1. The Direct Approach (U.S. Version)
    2. The Abstract (International) Approach
  73. Activities and Facilities
  74. Assets and Facilities
    1. Asset Types and Specification Locations
  75. Summary
  76. Employment
    1. Position Assignments
    2. Hiring
  77. Education and Certification
    1. Certification Requirements
    2. Obtaining Certification
  78. Benefits
  79. Payday!
    1. Accounting Implications
  80. About Communications
    1. Communication Role
    2. Communications Among Sites
    3. Communication Procedures
  81. Advertising and Information Resource
    1. Communication in Context
    2. Events
  82. Summary
  83. Contracts
    1. Contract Costs
    2. Employment as a Contract
  84. Delivering Against a Contract
    1. Contract Roles
  85. Summary
  86. The Manufacturing Process
    1. Routing Steps
    2. Work Orders
      1. Production Work Orders
    3. Dependence
    4. Maintenance Work Orders
  87. Material Usage
    1. Asset Specification Structure
    2. Material Usage Costs
      1. Material Movement
      2. Asset Structure
      3. Utilizing Equipment
      4. Adjustments
  88. Labor Usage
    1. Standard Labor Cost
    2. Actual Labor Cost
    3. Accounting for Manufacturing Costs
  89. Summary
  90. Samples
  91. Laboratory Tests
    1. Sampling in Context
  92. The Laboratory Model in Context
  93. Observations
    1. ***
      1. Actual Observations
    2. Expected Observations
  94. Parameters and Characteristics
    1. Derived Parameters
  95. Summary
  96. The Examples
  97. A Word of Advice—and an Invitation
  98. Cases
    1. Evidence and Status
    2. Linking to the Enterprise Model
    3. Events
  99. People and Organizations
    1. Characteristics and Categories
    2. Employment
    3. Roles
  100. Summary
  101. Basic Chemistry
  102. Biochemistry It is impossible to find definitions of these terms that don’t require at least a basic knowledge of chemistry and the nature of life. To describe these more fully would require a college text book. The interested reader is referred to a good example of such a textbook, Molecular Biology of the Cell, written in 1994 by Bruce Alberts Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and James D. Watson (New York: Garland Publishing). But be warned: You have to be really interested in microbiology to read that one. It is an excellent, well written text, but it is very comprehensive.
    1. What Life is Made of
    2. How Life is Organized
  103. Composition
  104. Physical Structures
  105. Packaged Products
  106. Summary
  107. Instruments and Instrument Specifications
    1. About Financial Instruments
    2. Instrument Characteristics
      1. Characteristic Values
    3. Instrument Categories
    4. Marketing Relationships
      1. Instrument Components
      2. Agreements
    5. Roles
    6. Delivering Against Instruments
    7. Geography and Currency
    8. Guidance Facility
  108. Banking and the Enterprise Model
    1. Agreements and Asset Types
    2. Roles and Activities
  109. Summary – An Issue
  110. Facilities
    1. Surface Facilities
    2. Completions
    3. Purposes and Products
  111. Well Assemblies
    1. Well Assemblies in Facilities
    2. Well Assembly Structure
    3. Well Assembly Characteristics
  112. Paths
    1. Complex Paths
    2. Locating Nodes Geographically
  113. Grade Separated Crossings
  114. Flows
  115. Physical Assets
  116. A Final Word About Identifiers
  117. Summary
  118. Glossary
  119. Bibliography