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Engineering Drawing, 2nd Edition

Book Description

The second edition of Engineering Drawing continues to cover all the fundamental topics of the field, while maintaining its unique focus on the logic behind each concept and method. Based on extensive market research and reviews of the first edition, this edition includes a new chapter on scales, the latest version of AutoCAD, and new pedagogy. The coverage of topics has been made more clear and concise through over 300 solved examples and exercises, with new problems added to help students work progressively through them. Combining technical accuracy with readable explanations, this book will be invaluable to both first-year undergraduate engineering students as well as those preparing for professional exams.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. About the Authors
  6. Dedication
  7. Abbreviations, Symbols and Notations
  8. Preface
  9. The Development of This Book
  10. Chapter 1. Basics of Engineering Drawing
    1. Objectives
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Drawing Instruments
      1. 1.2.1 Drawing Board
      2. 1.2.2 Minidrafter
      3. 1.2.3 Precision Instrument Box
      4. 1.2.4 Set Squares
      5. 1.2.5 Engineers’ Scales
      6. 1.2.6 Protractor
      7. 1.2.7 Irregular or French Curves
      8. 1.2.8 Spring Clips
      9. 1.2.9 Drawing Papers
      10. 1.2.10 Pencils
      11. 1.2.11 Erasers
      12. 1.2.12 Erasing Shields
      13. 1.2.13 Templates
      14. 1.2.14 Dusters
      15. 1.2.15 Flexible Curves
      16. 1.2.16 Tracing Paper
      17. 1.2.17 T-Square
    4. 1.3 Title Block
    5. 1.4 Points to Remember
    6. Exercises
    7. Review Questions
  11. Chapter 2. Symbolic Lines and Lettering
    1. Objectives
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Symbolic Lines
    4. 2.3 Lettering
    5. 2.4 General Rules for Lettering
    6. Exercises
    7. Review Questions
  12. Chapter 3. Geometrical Constructions, Loci and Engineering Plane Curves
    1. Objectives
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Methods of Construction
    4. 3.3 Loci of Points
    5. 3.4 Engineering Curves
      1. 3.4.1 Conics
      2. 3.4.2 Cycloidal Curves
      3. 3.4.3 Involutes
      4. 3.4.4 Spirals
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
    8. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  13. Chapter 4. Scales
    1. Objectives
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Representative Fraction
    4. 4.3 Construction of Scales
    5. 4.4 Types of Scales
      1. 4.4.1 Plain Scales
      2. 4.4.2 Diagonal Scales
      3. 4.4.3 Vernier Scales
      4. 4.4.4 Comparative Scales
      5. 4.4.5 Scale of Chords
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
  14. Chapter 5. Projections of Points and Lines
    1. Objectives
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Orthographic Projections
    4. 5.3 First-Angle Projections
    5. 5.4 Second-, Third- and Fourth-Angle Projections
    6. 5.5 Projections of Lines
    7. 5.6 Angles Between Lines and Reference Planes
    8. 5.7 Projections of Lines Parallel to One and Inclined to the Other Reference Plane
    9. 5.8 Projections of Lines Inclined to Both the Reference Planes
    10. 5.9 Problems Related to Lines Inclined to Both the Reference Planes
      1. 5.9.1 To Find the True Length of a Line
      2. 5.9.2 To Find the Angle of Inclination
    11. 5.10 Traces of a Line
    12. 5.11 Procedure for Locating the HT and the VT
    13. 5.12 Procedure When the HT and/or the VT is Given
    14. 5.13 Side Views
    15. 5.14 Shortest Distance Between a Given Line AB and Ground Line XY
    16. Exercises
    17. Critical Thinking Exercises
  15. Chapter 6. Projections on Auxiliary Reference Planes
    1. Objectives
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 The Auxiliary Plane Method
      1. 6.2.1 Projection of a Point on an Auxiliary Vertical Plane (AVP)
      2. 6.2.2 Projection of a Point on an Auxiliary Inclined Plane (AIP)
    4. 6.3 Procedure for Drawing an Auxiliary Front View (AFV)
    5. 6.4 Procedure for Drawing an Auxiliary Top View (ATV)
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
    8. Hints for Solving Exercises
    9. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  16. Chapter 7. Projections of Planes
    1. Objectives
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Positions of Planes
      1. 7.2.1 Planes Parallel to the VP
      2. 7.2.2 Planes Parallel to the HP
      3. 7.2.3 Planes Perpendicular to the VP and Inclined to the HP
      4. 7.2.4 Planes Perpendicular to the HP and Inclined to the VP
      5. 7.2.5 Planes Inclined to Both the Reference Planes
    4. 7.3 Positions When the Shape and Size in the Front View and/or Top View are Given
    5. Exercises
    6. Critical Thinking Exercises
    7. Hints for Solving Exercises
    8. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  17. Chapter 8. Projections of Solids
    1. Objectives
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Solids
      1. 8.2.1 Prisms and Pyramids
      2. 8.2.2 Cylinders and Cones
      3. 8.2.3 Frustums
    4. 8.3 Orthographic Projections of Solids
      1. 8.3.1 Projections of Solids with the Axis Perpendicular to one of the Reference Planes and Parallel to the Other Two
      2. 8.3.2 Projections of Solids with the Axis Parallel to One of the Reference Planes and Inclined to the Other
    5. 8.4 Additional Points for Two-Step Problems
      1. 8.4.1 The Axis of a Solid is Required to be Parallel to the VP and Inclined at θ to the HP
      2. 8.4.2 The Axis of a Solid is Required to be Parallel to the HP and Inclined at φ to the VP
    6. 8.5 Deciding the Position of the Axis
    7. 8.6 Visibility of Surfaces
    8. 8.7 Projections of Solids with the Axis Inclined to Both the HP and the VP
    9. 8.8 Projections of Spheres
    10. Exercises
    11. Critical Thinking Exercises
    12. Hints for Solving Exercises
    13. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  18. Chapter 9. Sections of Solids
    1. Objectives
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Cutting Planes
    4. 9.3 Sections and Sectional Views
    5. 9.4 Drawing Sectional Views
    6. 9.5 Locating the CP Position When the True Shape of a Section is Known
      1. 9.5.1 Hints to Remember
      2. 9.5.2 The Procedure for Locating the Cutting Plane
    7. Exercises
    8. Critical Thinking Exercises
    9. Hints for Solving Exercises
    10. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  19. Chapter 10. Intersection of Surfaces
    1. Objectives
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Determination of the Curve of Intersection
    4. 10.3 The Line Method
    5. 10.4 Procedure for the Line Method
    6. 10.5 Deciding the Visibility of the Curve of Intersection
      1. 10.5.1 Determining Cut-Off Portions of Lines on the Penetrated Solid
      2. 10.5.2 Visibility When the Solid Has a Hole
    7. 10.6 The Cutting Plane Method
    8. Exercises
    9. Critical Thinking Exercises
    10. Hints for Solving Exercises
    11. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  20. Chapter 11. Development of Surfaces
    1. Objectives
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Understanding the Development of Surfaces
    4. 11.3 Methods for Development
    5. 11.4 Methods for Development of Cut Surfaces
      1. 11.4.1 The Line Method
      2. 11.4.2 The Cutting Plane Method
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
    8. Hints for Solving Exercises
    9. Hints for Solving Critical Thinking Exercises
  21. Chapter 12. Multiview Orthographic Projections
    1. Objectives
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Multiview Orthographic Projections
    4. 12.3 Objects Bounded by Plane Surfaces
    5. 12.4 Reading an Isometric or Oblique Parallel Projection
      1. 12.4.1 Rules for Reading the Position of Each Line or Surface of an Object in a Pictorial View
      2. 12.4.2 Misleading Conditions in Pictorial Views
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
  22. Chapter 13. Sectional Views
    1. Objectives
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Projections of Sectional Views
    4. 13.3 Hatching Lines
    5. 13.4 Drawing Sectional Views of Machine Parts
    6. 13.5 Types of Sectional Views
      1. 13.5.1 Full-Sectional View
      2. 13.5.2 Half-Sectional View
      3. 13.5.3 Offset Sections
      4. 13.5.4 Revolved Sections
      5. 13.5.5 Removed Sections
      6. 13.5.6 Partial Section or Broken Section
    7. Exercises
    8. Critical Thinking Exercises
  23. Chapter 14. Dimensioning
    1. Objectives
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Dimensioning
      1. 14.2.1 Dimension Lines
      2. 14.2.2 Extension or Projection Lines
      3. 14.2.3 Leaders
    4. 14.3 Dimensioning Systems
    5. 14.4 Dimensioning Principles
    6. 14.5 Dimensioning Pictorial Views
    7. Exercises
    8. Critical Thinking Exercises
  24. Chapter 15. Auxiliary Views
    1. Objectives
    2. 15.1 Introduction
    3. 15.2 The Front Auxiliary View
    4. 15.3 The Top Auxiliary View or Auxiliary Elevation
    5. 15.4 The Side Auxiliary View
    6. 15.5 Partial Views
    7. 15.6 Drawing the Apparent Shapes of Surfaces
    8. Exercises
    9. Critical Thinking Exercises
  25. Chapter 16. Reading Orthographic Projections
    1. Objectives
    2. 16.1 Introduction
    3. 16.2 Reading Orthographic Projections
    4. 16.3 Reading Orthographic Projections by Visualizing the Bounding Surfaces
    5. 16.4 Recognizing the Projections of the Same Plane Surface
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
  26. Chapter 17. Isometric Projections
    1. Objectives
    2. 17.1 Introduction
    3. 17.2 Types of Pictorial Projections
    4. 17.3 Isometric Projections
      1. 17.3.1 The Isometric Scale
      2. 17.3.2 Drawing Isometric Projections of Solid Objects
      3. 17.3.3 Procedure for Drawing Isometric Projections of an Object
      4. 17.3.4 The Isometric Projection of a Sphere
    5. Exercises
    6. Critical Thinking Exercises
  27. Chapter 18. Oblique Parallel Projections and Perspective Projections
    1. Objectives
    2. 18.1 Introduction
    3. 18.2 Oblique Parallel Projections
    4. 18.3 The Oblique Parallel Projections of a Cube
    5. 18.4 Perspective Projections
      1. 18.4.1 Terminology
      2. 18.4.2 Theory of Perspective Projections
      3. 18.4.3 The Visual Ray Method
      4. 18.4.4 The Vanishing Point Method
      5. 18.4.5 Important Points About Perspective Projections
    6. Exercises
    7. Critical Thinking Exercises
  28. Chapter 19. Threaded Fasteners
    1. Objectives
    2. 19.1 Introduction
    3. 19.2 Screw Threads
      1. 19.2.1 The Terminology for Threads
      2. 19.2.2 The Forms of Screw Threads
    4. 19.3 Representation of Threads
    5. 19.4 Bolts, Nuts and Washers
    6. 19.5 Hexagonal Nuts
      1. 19.5.1 Orthographic Projections of a Hexagonal Nut
      2. 19.5.2 Symbolic Views of a Hexagonal Nut
    7. 19.6 Projections of a Hexagonal-Headed Bolt
    8. 19.7 Washers
    9. 19.8 Square Nuts
    10. 19.9 Types of Nuts
    11. 19.10 Types of Bolt Heads
    12. 19.11 Set Screws
    13. 19.12 Foundation Bolts
    14. 19.13 Tap Bolts
    15. 19.14 Stud Bolts
    16. 19.15 Locking Arrangements for Nuts
    17. Exercises
    18. Critical Thinking Exercises
  29. Chapter 20. Riveted and Welded Joints
    1. Objectives
    2. 20.1 Introduction
    3. 20.2 Types of Rivet Heads
    4. 20.3 Riveted Joints
      1. 20.3.1 Lap Joints
      2. 20.3.2 Butt Joints
    5. 20.4 Welding
    6. 20.5 Types of Welded Joints
      1. 20.5.1 Types of Welds
      2. 20.5.2 Welding Drawing
      3. 20.5.3 Representation of Welded Joints
      4. 20.5.4 Indication for Plate Preparation
      5. 20.5.5 Dimensioning Welds
      6. 20.5.6 Supplementary Symbols
      7. 20.5.7 Indicating the Welding Process
    7. Exercises
    8. Critical Thinking Exercises
  30. Chapter 21. Computer-Aided Drafting
    1. Objectives
    2. 21.1 Introduction
    3. 21.2 Using AutoCAD
      1. 21.2.1 A Mouse
      2. 21.2.2 A Keyboard
    4. 21.2 AutoCAD Command Access
    5. 21.3 Menus and Toolbars
    6. 21.4 Toolbars
      1. 21.4.1 Opening a File
      2. 21.4.2 Saving a File
    7. 21.5 Execution of Commands
      1. 21.5.1 The Donut and Spline Commands
      2. 21.5.2 The Line Command
      3. 21.5.3 The Coordinate Systems Command
      4. 21.5.4 The Polygon Command
      5. 21.5.5 The Circle Command
      6. 21.5.6 The Arc Command
      7. 21.5.7 The Ellipse Command
      8. 21.5.8 The Hatch Command
      9. 21.5.9 The Zoom Command
      10. 21.5.10 The Regen Command
      11. 21.5.11 The UCS Command
      12. 21.5.12 The Units Command
      13. 21.5.13 Drawing Limits
      14. 21.5.14 The Grid Command
      15. 21.5.15 The Offset Command
      16. 21.5.16 The Change Command
      17. 21.5.17 The Chprop Command
      18. 21.5.18 The Erase Command
      19. 21.5.19 The Trim Command
      20. 21.5.20 The Array Command
      21. 21.5.21 The Mirror Command
      22. 21.5.22 The Copy Command
      23. 21.5.23 The Move Command
      24. 21.5.24 The Chamfer Command
      25. 21.5.25 The Fillet Command
      26. 21.5.26 The Pedit Command
      27. 21.5.27 The Dimension Command
      28. 21.5.28 The Extend Command
      29. 21.5.29 The Lengthen Command
    8. 21.6 Three-Dimensional Modelling
      1. 21.6.1 The Wire Frame Model
      2. 21.6.2 The Surface Model
      3. 21.6.3 The Solid Model
    9. Exercises
    10. Critical Thinking Exercise
  31. Acknowledgements
  32. Copyright