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Energy Management and Operating Costs in Buildings

Book Description

Managing the consumption and conservation of energy in buildings must now become the concern of both building managers and occupants. The provision of lighting, hot water supply, communications, cooking, space heating and cooling accounts for 45 per cent of UK energy consumption.
Energy Management and Operating Costs in Buildings introduces the reader to the principles of managing and conserving energy consumpton in buildings people use for work or leisure. Energy consumption is considered for the provision of space heating, hot water, supply ventilation and air conditioning. The author introduces the use of standard performance indicators and energy consumption yardsticks, and discusses the use and application of degree days.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. Introduction
  9. 1. The economics of space heating plants
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 The economics
    4. 1.3 Internal heat sources
    5. 1.4 Standard Degree Days
    6. 1.5 Calculation of Standard Degree Days
    7. 1.6 Non-Standard Degree Days
    8. 1.7 Research into Degree Days
    9. 1.8 Limitations of the Degree Day method of estimating annual energy consumption
    10. 1.9 Chapter closure
  10. 2. Estimating energy consumption—space heating
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Estimating procedures for continuously heated buildings
    4. 2.3 Adoption of Equivalent Hours and the weather/load factor
    5. Direct Use of Standard Degree Days
    6. 2.4 The preferred model for estimating annual fuel consumption
    7. 2.5 Equivalent Hours and maximum hours at full load
    8. 2.6 Qualifying remarks
    9. 2.7 Chapter closure
  11. 3. Intermittent space heating
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 The estimation of annual energy demand
    4. 3.3 The estimation of annual fuel consumption for an office
    5. 3.4 Estimation of annual fuel consumption for a school
    6. 3.5 Qualifying remarks
    7. 3.6 The estimation of annual fuel consumption for a factory
    8. 3.7 The estimation of annual fuel consumption for a house
    9. 3.8 Further qualifying remarks
    10. 3.9 Chapter closure
  12. 4. Estimating the annual cost for the provision of hot water supply
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Factors to be considered
    4. 4.3 Hot water supply requirements and boiler power
    5. 4.4 Determination of the annual energy consumption estimate
    6. 4.5 Qualifying remarks—boarding school
    7. 4.6 Qualifying remarks—sports centre
    8. 4.7 An alternative method of estimating
    9. 4.8 Chapter closure
  13. 5. Energy consumption for cooling loads
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 External heat gains
    4. 5.3 Factors affecting the estimation of AED for seasonal cooling
    5. 5.4 The use of sol-air temperature for estimating AED for seasonal cooling
    6. 5.5 Estimation of AED for the cooling base load
    7. 5.6 AED—an untested alternative estimate
    8. 5.7 Chapter closure
  14. 6. Performance indicators
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Performance indicators
    4. 6.3 Standard performance indicators for some common building types
    5. 6.4 Correction factors for standard performance indicators
    6. 6.5 Further source data for performance indicators
    7. 6.6 Comparison of source data
    8. 6.7 Conclusions relating to SCTs and SPIs
    9. 6.8 Carbon dioxideemissions
    10. 6.9 Carbon dioxide yardsticks
    11. 6.10 Chapter closure
  15. 7. Energy conservation strategies
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Energy transfer from point of extraction to point of use
    4. 7.3 Efficiency of space heating plants
    5. 7.4 Seasonal and base load demand and consumption
    6. 7.5 The energy conservation programme
    7. 7.6 The energy audit
    8. 7.7 The energy survey
    9. 7.8 Areas for energy saving
    10. 7.9 Heat recovery
    11. 7.10 Chapter closure
  16. 8. Cost benefit analysis
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Simple payback
    4. 8.3 Discounted cash flow and present value
    5. 8.4 Effects of fuel inflation (case study 8.1)
    6. 8.5 Net present value and comparison of different schemes
    7. 8.6 Loans
    8. 8.7 Life cycle costs
    9. 8.8 Repair or replace
    10. 8.9 Chapter closure
  17. 9. Energy audits
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Preliminaries to an energy audit
    4. 9.3 Outcomes of the energy audit
    5. 9.4 Measurement of primary energy consumption
    6. 9.5 Primary energy tariffs
    7. 9.6 Presenting the data—a simple audit
    8. 9.7 Presentation of data—a more detailed audit
    9. 9.8 Further sourcematerial
    10. 9.9 Chapter closure
  18. 10. Monitoring and targeting
    1. Nomenclature
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Monitoring procedures
    4. 10.3 Monitoring equipment
    5. 10.4 Correlation and linear regression analysis
    6. 10.5 Continuous performance monitoring using Degree Days
    7. 10.6 Continuous performance monitoring using mean daily outdoor temperature
    8. 10.7 Correcting fuel/energy consumption to a common time base
    9. 10.8 Performance monitoring using cumulative sum deviation
    10. 10.9 Chapter closure
  19. Appendix 1. Standard heating Degree Day data
  20. Appendix 2. Energy conservation measures
  21. Appendix 3. Preventive maintenance measures
  22. Appendix 4. Energy Efficiency Office’s series of booklets on Introduction to Energy Efficiency
  23. Appendix 5. Monitoring equipment
  24. Appendix 6. Cost benefit tables
  25. Appendix 7. Standard service illuminance for various activities/interiors
  26. Appendix 8. Source organizations and addresses
  27. Appendix 9. Source journals
  28. Appendix 10. Some current energy saving schemes
  29. Bibliography
  30. Index