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Encyclopedia of Technology and Innovation Management

Book Description

A broadly encompassing encyclopedia on the emerging topic of technology, innovation and management (TIM), this volume covers a wide array of topics. We note that TIM is an emerging field and one that is interdisciplinary, incorporating strategy and entrepreneurship, economics, marketing, organizational behavior, organization theory, physical and life sciences, and even law. We strive to ensure that all of these disciplines are represented in this volume, and that their intersections are made clear.

Entries are contributed by scholars from around the world who are leading experts in their respective topics. This volume is appropriate for scholars who are new to this particular field, as well as industry practitioners interested in understanding the state of knowledge in these specific areas. Entries may also serve as useful instructional materials, given their span of coverage as well as their currency.

ISBN 9781405160490

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Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Board of Advisors
  3. Preface
  4. About the Editors
  5. List of Contributors
  6. I. Technology-specific Concepts
    1. 1. Technology: Discourse and Possibility
      1. 1.1. Technology's social context
      2. 1.2. Technology's objectivity and language
      3. 1.3. A constructivist approach
      4. 1.4. Bibliography
    2. 2. Technology Evolution
      1. 2.1. The nature of technological creativity
      2. 2.2. How technology evolves
        1. 2.2.1. Long swings and the evolution of technology
        2. 2.2.2. The sources of technology evolution
      3. 2.3. The diffusion curve
      4. 2.4. Path dependence
      5. 2.5. The geography of technological progress
      6. 2.6. Technology transfer
      7. 2.7. Conclusion
      8. 2.8. References
    3. 3. Technology Transition
      1. 3.1. Introduction
        1. 3.1.1. Technology transition
      2. 3.2. Shape of technological evolution
      3. 3.3. Technological transition and performance of competing technologies
      4. 3.4. Dimensions of technological competition
      5. 3.5. Conclusions
      6. 3.6. References
    4. 4. Technology Intelligence
      1. 4.1. Scope of technology intelligence1
      2. 4.2. Objectives of technology intelligence–gathering
      3. 4.3. Functions of TI
        1. 4.3.1. 4.3.1 TI surveys technologies
        2. 4.3.2. 4.3.2 TI aims at surveying both current and future technologies
        3. 4.3.3. 4.3.3 TI involves tracking competitors
      4. 4.4. Sources for TI
      5. 4.5. Methods of TI
      6. 4.6. Tools of TI
      7. 4.7. Deliverables, techniques, and format
      8. 4.8. The players in the TI process
      9. 4.9. Conclusion and managerial implications
      10. 4.10. References
    5. 5. Technology Forecasting
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Historical background
      3. 5.3. Frameworks for forecasting
        1. 5.3.1. Form specification and intelligence gathering
        2. 5.3.2. Scanning
      4. 5.4. Data sources
        1. 5.4.1. Patents
        2. 5.4.2. Other data sources
      5. 5.5. Forecasting methodologies
      6. 5.6. Social and economic factors
      7. 5.7. Simulating the future
      8. 5.8. Trends in forecasting and future directions
      9. 5.9. Closing comments
      10. 5.10. Bibliography
    6. 6. Disruptive Technology
      1. 6.1. References
    7. 7. Intellectual Property
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. Categories
        1. 7.2.1. 7.2.1 Patent
        2. 7.2.2. 7.2.2 Copyright
        3. 7.2.3. 7.2.3 Trademark
        4. 7.2.4. 7.2.4 Trade secrets
        5. 7.2.5. 7.2.5 Computers and technology
      3. 7.3. History of intellectual property development
        1. 7.3.1. 7.3.1 The West
          1. 7.3.1.1. Patent
          2. 7.3.1.2. Copyright
          3. 7.3.1.3. Trademark
        2. 7.3.2. 7.3.2 The rest of the world
      4. 7.4. Current and emerging issues
      5. 7.5. Bibliography
    8. 8. Options and the Analysis of Technology Projects
      1. 8.1. Basic concepts
      2. 8.2. Example of real-options analysis
      3. 8.3. Conclusion
      4. 8.4. References
    9. 9. Technology and Innovation Management: Financing Technology
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Problems in financing innovation: adverse selection and moral hazard
      3. 9.3. The problem of project valuation
      4. 9.4. Financing options
      5. 9.5. Bootstrapping
      6. 9.6. Angel investors
      7. 9.7. Royalty financing
      8. 9.8. Private placement
      9. 9.9. Venture philanthropy
      10. 9.10. Research parks
      11. 9.11. Local/State/Federal programs
      12. 9.12. Asset-based lending
      13. 9.13. Venture capital
      14. 9.14. Mergers and acquisitions
      15. 9.15. SWORDs and spinouts
      16. 9.16. Outsourcing
      17. 9.17. Public markets
      18. 9.18. PIPEs (private investment in public entities)
      19. 9.19. Strategic alliances/partnerships
      20. 9.20. Conclusion
      21. 9.21. References
  7. II. Industry Level
    1. 10. Innovation-driven Industry Life Cycles
      1. 10.1. Introduction
        1. 10.1.1. Industry, product, or technology life cycle?
        2. 10.1.2. Abernathy–Utterback ILC
      2. 10.2. Challenges
      3. 10.3. Evidence
        1. 10.3.1. Evidence in support of ILC
        2. 10.3.2. Evidence contradictory to ILC
        3. 10.3.3. Reconciling the evidence: boundary conditions
      4. 10.4. Competitive dynamics over the industry life cycle
        1. 10.4.1. Fluid stage: product experimentation
        2. 10.4.2. Transition: battles for dominance
        3. 10.4.3. Specific phase: stabilizing processes
        4. 10.4.4. Timing investments
      5. 10.5. References
    2. 11. Technological Characteristics of Industries
      1. 11.1. Frameworks for examining technological characteristics of industries
      2. 11.2. A note on the technological characteristics of service industries
      3. 11.3. Conclusion
      4. 11.4. References
    3. 12. Competitive Dynamics in High-technology Industries
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. The timing of competitive entry
      3. 12.3. Incremental, breakthrough, and architectural innovation
      4. 12.4. Standard-setting and dominant designs
      5. 12.5. Concluding remarks
      6. 12.6. References
  8. III. Innovation
    1. 13. Types of Innovation
      1. 13.1. Product/Service versus process innovations
      2. 13.2. Radical versus incremental innovations
      3. 13.3. Technological versus administrative innovations
      4. 13.4. Disruptive versus sustaining innovations
      5. 13.5. Architectural versus modular innovations
      6. 13.6. Putting it all together: the product portfolio
      7. 13.7. References
    2. 14. Sources of Innovation
      1. 14.1. Demand-side sources of innovation
      2. 14.2. Supply-side sources of innovation
      3. 14.3. Drucker's sources of innovation
      4. 14.4. An integrated dynamic model of innovation
        1. 14.5. Identifies and exploits opportunities
        2. 14.6. Creates opportunities
        3. 14.6.1. Missing opportunities
        4. 14.6.2. Serves customers
      5. 14.7. Conclusions
      6. 14.8. References
    3. 15. Innovation Models
      1. 15.1. What are innovation models?
      2. 15.2. Static and dynamic innovation models
        1. 15.2.1. Static models
          1. 15.2.1.1. Schumpeter
          2. 15.2.1.2. Abernathy–Clark
          3. 15.2.1.3. Henderson–Clark
          4. 15.2.1.4. Teece model
        2. 15.2.2. Dynamic models
          1. 15.2.2.1. Utterback–Abernathy
          2. 15.2.2.2. Tushman–Rosenkopf
          3. 15.2.2.3. Foster's S-curve
      3. 15.3. Integrated model and framework
      4. 15.4. Summary
      5. 15.5. References
    4. 16. Diffusion of Innovation
      1. 16.1. The Rogers' diffusion model
      2. 16.2. The Moore diffusion model
      3. 16.3. Using diffusion models for sales prediction
      4. 16.4. Final thoughts: global product diffusion
      5. 16.5. Bibliography
    5. 17. Consumer Adoption of Technological Innovations
      1. 17.1. Existing functionality and existing interface
      2. 17.2. Existing functionality and new interface
      3. 17.3. New functionality and existing interface
      4. 17.4. New functionality and new interface
      5. 17.5. References
  9. IV. Firm Level
    1. 18. Open Innovation
      1. 18.1. Introduction
        1. 18.1.1. Factors encouraging open innovation
        2. 18.2. Increasing complexity
        3. 18.2.1. Emerging issues in open innovation
      2. 18.3. References
    2. 19. Technology Strategy
      1. 19.1. Formulating technology strategy
        1. 19.1.1. Core technologies
        2. 19.1.2. Technological pioneering strategy
        3. 19.1.3. Technology standards
        4. 19.1.4. Technological discontinuities
      2. 19.2. Organizing for technology strategy
        1. 19.2.1. Technology alliances
        2. 19.2.2. R&D intensity
        3. 19.2.3. Managing scientific human resources
      3. 19.3. References
    3. 20. Absorptive Capacity and Technological Innovation
      1. 20.1. The concept and its dimensions
      2. 20.2. Absorptive capacity and technological innovation
      3. 20.3. Absorptive capacity, learning, and building innovative capability
      4. 20.4. Conclusion
      5. 20.5. References
    4. 21. The Generations of R&D and Innovation Management
      1. 21.1. First-generation R&D (1G)
      2. 21.2. Second-generation R&D and innovation management (2G)
      3. 21.3. Third-generation R&D and innovation management (3G)
      4. 21.4. Fourth-generation R&D and innovation management (4G)
      5. 21.5. Summary
      6. 21.6. References
    5. 22. Dual Career Ladders in Organizations
      1. 22.1. Bibliography
    6. 23. Human Resources in R&D
      1. 23.1. Human resources planning
      2. 23.2. Rewards
      3. 23.3. Appraising performance
      4. 23.4. Career management
      5. 23.5. Cross-functional teams and global virtual teams
      6. 23.6. Leading to networked scientists and engineers
      7. 23.7. Knowledge and creativity management
      8. 23.8. Demographic diversity
      9. 23.9. Electronic technology
      10. 23.10. Outsourcing
      11. 23.11. Where to go in the field of managing scientists and engineers
      12. 23.12. References
    7. 24. The Stage-Gate ® Product Innovation System: From Idea to Launch
      1. 24.1. What is a Stage-Gate® system?
      2. 24.2. The need for a formal new-product process
      3. 24.3. A little history: the roots of Stage-Gate
      4. 24.4. Research that led to Stage-Gate
      5. 24.5. How Stage-Gate works
        1. 24.5.1. The stages
        2. 24.5.2. The gates or go/kill decision points
        3. 24.5.3. Built-in success factors
      6. 24.6. Advancements in the system: NexGen Stage Gate®
      7. 24.7. Conclusion
      8. 24.8. References
    8. 25. Learning and Experience
      1. 25.1. Introduction
      2. 25.2. What is knowledge?
      3. 25.3. Converting individual knowledge into organizational learning
      4. 25.4. Different ways of learning
      5. 25.5. Learning how to learn
      6. 25.6. References
    9. 26. New-product Development Innovation and Commercialization Processes
      1. 26.1. History of product development processes
      2. 26.2. The overall innovation process
      3. 26.3. The fuzzy front end of innovation: creating the concept
      4. 26.4. Gaining project acceptance: from concept to formal project
      5. 26.5. Project implementation: from project to product launch
      6. 26.6. The whole innovation process: more than the sum of the parts
      7. 26.7. References
    10. 27. Service Innovation
      1. 27.1. Published examples of service innovation
      2. 27.2. Manufacturing firms offering significant new-service innovations
        1. 27.2.1. GM OnStar
        2. 27.2.2. John Deere remote machine–monitoring system
        3. 27.2.3. Stryker Physiotherapy Associates
        4. 27.2.4. Caterpillar tractor remanufacturing services
        5. 27.2.5. United Technologies' Pratt & Whitney parts services
        6. 27.2.6. United Technologies' Otis Elevator's OTISLINE
      3. 27.3. Incumbent service with innovative offerings
        1. 27.3.1. Starwood Hotels and six-sigma innovation
        2. 27.3.2. Bank of America and new-branch banking
        3. 27.3.3. HSBC and green banking
        4. 27.3.4. Parkland Hospital and emergency room kiosks
        5. 27.3.5. Levi Strauss and disruptive khakis
      4. 27.4. New-entrant service innovations
        1. 27.4.1. RockBottomGolf.com and online retailing
        2. 27.4.2. CB2: new retail market segments
        3. 27.4.3. Zipcar and car-sharing services
        4. 27.4.4. Askmen.com and pacing growth
        5. 27.4.5. Trader Joe's and store branding
      5. 27.5. An evolving model of service innovation
      6. 27.6. References
    11. 28. Process Innovation in Operations
      1. 28.1. Flexible operations
      2. 28.2. Mass customization
      3. 28.3. Synchronous innovation
      4. 28.4. Assessing the benefits of advanced manufacturing technologies: the role of context
        1. 28.4.1. Organization strategy
        2. 28.4.2. Organization structure
        3. 28.4.3. Organization culture
        4. 28.4.4. HRM practices
      5. 28.5. Conclusion
      6. 28.6. References
    12. 29. Organizing for Innovation
      1. 29.1. A brief history of organizing for innovation: from structure to systems to teams
        1. 29.1.1. Systematic task assignment
        2. 29.1.2. The birth of the bureaucratic organization
        3. 29.1.3. Early organization theorists
        4. 29.1.4. Organization and strategy
        5. 29.1.5. "Organic" and "mechanistic" organization
        6. 29.1.6. Organizing for innovation
        7. 29.1.7. Innovation in teams
        8. 29.1.8. Networks of innovation
      2. 29.2. From innovation structures to innovation networks
      3. 29.3. Alternative approaches to innovation: the challenges of constraints
        1. 29.3.1. Innovation for fun and profit
        2. 29.3.2. A process/cultural approach to innovation
        3. 29.3.3. Innovation due to serendipitous resource couplings
      4. 29.4. Innovation and institutional infrastructure
        1. 29.4.1. The open innovation model
      5. 29.5. References
    13. 30. The Concept of Corporate Entrepreneurship
      1. 30.1. Introduction
      2. 30.2. The concept of corporate venturing
        1. 30.2.1. Motives for corporate venturing
        2. 30.2.2. Corporate venture capital
      3. 30.3. The concept of strategic entrepreneurship
        1. 30.3.1. The forms of strategic entrepreneurship
      4. 30.4. Summary
      5. 30.5. References
    14. 31. Intellectual Property Strategy at the Firm Level
      1. 31.1. Intellectual capital: types and options
      2. 31.2. Patent strategies for the firm
      3. 31.3. Patents as strategic levers
      4. 31.4. The industry effect
      5. 31.5. The U.S. IPR system and its discontents in a global economy
      6. 31.6. Conclusions
      7. 31.7. References
  10. V. Project Level Concepts
    1. 32. Innovation Teams
      1. 32.1. Definition of innovation teams
        1. 32.1.1. Heavyweight versus lightweight teams
        2. 32.1.2. Team formation and size
        3. 32.1.3. Diversity of teams
        4. 32.1.4. Team proximity
      2. 32.2. Team process
        1. 32.2.1. Characteristics of effective team members and teams
        2. 32.2.2. Teamwork
        3. 32.2.3. Rewards
      3. 32.3. Leadership of innovation teams
      4. 32.4. Conclusion
      5. 32.5. References
    2. 33. Understanding Customer Needs
      1. 33.1. Techniques for deeply understanding customer needs
      2. 33.2. References
    3. 34. The Front End of Innovation in Large Established Firms
      1. 34.1. Introduction
      2. 34.2. Front end of innovation for exploitation projects
        1. 34.2.1. Process and practices
        2. 34.2.2. Project initiation and selection
      3. 34.3. Front end of innovation for exploration projects aligned with the value network
        1. 34.3.1. Process and practices
        2. 34.3.2. Project initiation and selection
      4. 34.4. Front end of innovation for exploration projects not aligned with the value network
        1. 34.4.1. Process and practices
        2. 34.4.2. Project initiation and selection
      5. 34.5. Summary and conclusions
      6. 34.6. References
    4. 35. Project Management under High Uncertainty
      1. 35.1. Project management methodologies and tools
        1. 35.1.1. Variation and buffers
        2. 35.1.2. Project risk management and contingency planning
        3. 35.1.3. Residual risk management
      2. 35.2. Types of uncertainty and unforeseeable uncertainty
      3. 35.3. Approaches to unforeseeable uncertainty
      4. 35.4. Project management phases
      5. 35.5. References
    5. 36. Evaluating Innovation Projects
      1. 36.1. Adopting different evaluation approaches for different projects
      2. 36.2. Why is project evaluation important?
      3. 36.3. How should project evaluation be conducted?
      4. 36.4. When should project evaluation occur?
      5. 36.5. What criteria should be used for project evaluation?
      6. 36.6. Who should conduct project evaluation?
      7. 36.7. Project evaluation:an opportunity for creating competitive advantage
      8. 36.8. References
    6. 37. Managing Project–Organization Coupling in Breakthrough Innovation
      1. 37.1. Models of the innovation project/host organization interface
      2. 37.2. Aim of this chapter
      3. 37.3. Loosely coupled systems for corporate entrepreneurship
        1. 37.3.1. The discovery of loosening and coupling mechanisms
        2. 37.3.2. Dynamics of loosely coupled systems: managing independence
      4. 37.4. Discussion
      5. 37.5. Epilogue: tools for managing the project–organization linkage
      6. 37.6. References
    7. 38. Promotors and Champions of Innovation: Barriers to Innovation and Innovator Roles
      1. 38.1. Promotors and champions overcoming barriers
        1. 38.1.1. Five innovator roles
        2. 38.1.2. Cooperation between promotors
        3. 38.1.3. Role combination and role plurality
        4. 38.1.4. Dynamics of promotor roles
      2. 38.2. Limitations of the promotor concept
      3. 38.3. References and further reading
  11. VI. National Innovation Systems
    1. 39. Innovation at the National Level
      1. 39.1. National innovation systems
      2. 39.2. Evolution of NIS scholarship
      3. 39.3. Theoretical foundations of the NIS concept
      4. 39.4. Impact on policy making
      5. 39.5. A comparison of the featured case studies of nations
      6. 39.6. Government influences
      7. 39.7. Diversity of technologies
      8. 39.8. Socio-cultural factors
      9. 39.9. Conclusion
      10. 39.10. References
    2. 40. Australia's National Innovation System
      1. 40.1. Introduction and historical overview
      2. 40.2. Summary of output trends
        1. 40.2.1. Innovation in a relatively small and remote resource-based economy
        2. 40.2.2. Inputs to innovation3
        3. 40.2.3. Characteristics of R&D activity in Australia
        4. 40.2.4. Innovation-related outputs
      3. 40.3. Technology commercialization initiatives
      4. 40.4. National innovation policy
      5. 40.5. Relative strengths and weaknesses in technology
      6. 40.6. Funds flow for innovation
      7. 40.7. Cultural and political drivers influencing the NIS10
      8. 40.8. Conclusion
      9. 40.9. References
    3. 41. Evolution of China's National Innovation System and Its Challenges in Technological Development
      1. 41.1. Introduction
      2. 41.2. Evolution of China's innovation system
      3. 41.3. Technology commercialization and science–industry linkage
      4. 41.4. Challenges of technology development
      5. 41.5. Building the innovation infrastructure: policy-oriented
        1. 41.5.1. 41.5.1 The development of intellectual property rights: patents
        2. 41.5.2. 41.5.2 International openness and the utilization of external technology
      6. 41.6. Skipping stage of industrial development
      7. 41.7. Concluding remarks
      8. 41.8. References
    4. 42. The National Innovation System in Taiwan
      1. 42.1. Introduction
      2. 42.2. The history of Taiwan's NIS development4
      3. 42.3. Taiwan's NIS infrastructure
        1. 42.3.1. Executive organizations
          1. 42.3.1.1. National Science Council of the Executive Yuan NSC)7
          2. 42.3.1.2. The Science and Technology Advisory Group of the Executive Yuan (STAG)8
          3. 42.3.1.3. The Executive Yuan Technology Strategic Review Board (SRB)
          4. 42.3.1.4. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)9
          5. 42.3.1.5. Department of Industrial Technology (DoIT)10
          6. 42.3.1.6. The Small and Medium Enterprise Administration SMEA)13
          7. 42.3.1.7. The Council of Agriculture (COA)14
          8. 42.3.1.8. The Ministry of Education (MOE)15
        2. 42.3.2. Implementing organizations
          1. 42.3.2.1. Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)16
          2. 42.3.2.2. Development Center for Biotechnology (DCB)17
          3. 42.3.2.3. National Health Research Institute (NHRI)18
          4. 42.3.2.4. Institute for Information Industry (III)19
        3. 42.3.3. Planning and assessment system
          1. 42.3.3.1. Planning and approval
      4. 42.4. The policy-forming process of Taiwan's NIS
        1. 42.4.1. National S&T Conference
        2. 42.4.2. STAG Advisory Board Meeting of the Executive Yuan
      5. 42.5. The resources and outputs of Taiwan's NIS20
        1. 42.4.3. Expenditure
          1. 42.4.3.1. Central government's S&T budget
          2. 42.4.3.2. Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)
          3. 42.4.3.3. R&D expenditure by type of R&D
        2. 42.4.4. Workforce
          1. 42.4.4.1. Human resources
          2. 42.4.4.2. Total R&D personnel
        3. 42.4.5. output
          1. 42.4.5.1. National competitiveness World Economic Forum
        4. 42.4.6. S&T development output indicators
          1. 42.4.6.1. Performance in academic papers and patents
          2. 42.4.6.2. Technology balance of payments
      6. 42.6. The challenges of Taiwan's NIS
        1. 42.5.1. Structural problems
          1. 42.5.1.1. The disparity between impressive patent achievement and huge technology trade imbalance
          2. 42.5.1.2. The inadequacy of Taiwan's innovation value chain
          3. 42.5.1.3. Insufficient R&D investment
          4. 42.5.1.4. Inadequate funding for higher education
          5. 42.5.1.5. Lack of qualified, high-level R&D personnel
        2. 42.5.2. International factors
          1. 42.5.2.1. The China factor
          2. 42.5.2.2. Global R&D outsourcing
      7. 42.7. Conclusion
      8. 42.8. References
    5. 43. The National Innovation System in Singapore
      1. 43.1. History of technological development in Singapore
        1. 43.1.1. Government-linked corporations
        2. 43.1.2. Multinational corporations
        3. 43.1.3. Small and medium-size enterprises
        4. 43.1.4. Technology trajectory
      2. 43.2. National innovation policy and policy-making agencies
        1. 43.2.1. National Science and Technology Plans
        2. 43.2.2. Research, Innovation, & Enterprise Council
        3. 43.2.3. National Research Foundation
        4. 43.2.4. The Scientific Advisory Board (SAB)
      3. 43.3. Elements of the National Innovation System
        1. 43.3.1. Science parks
        2. 43.3.2. Government-sponsored research agencies
        3. 43.3.3. The Agency for Science, Technology, and Research
      4. 43.4. The critical role of education
      5. 43.5. National technology commercialization initiatives
        1. 43.5.1. Funds flow for innovation
        2. 43.5.2. Exploit technologies
      6. 43.6. Summary of innovation output trends
      7. 43.7. Conclusion
      8. 43.8. References
    6. 44. The Indian Innovation System
      1. 44.1. Introduction
        1. 44.1.1. Theself-reliance phase
        2. 44.1.2. The deregulation phase
      2. 44.1.2. Output trends
      3. 44.3. Commercialization of technology
      4. 44.4. National Innovation Policy
      5. 44.5. Strengths in technology and innovation
      6. 44.6. Challenges faced by the innovation system and future directions
        1. 44.1.3. Challenges
        2. 44.1.4. Future directions
      7. 44.7. References
    7. 45. Japan's National Innovation System
      1. 45.1. Introduction
      2. 45.2. Japan's indigenous explicit capacity
        1. 45.3.1. 45.2.1 Japan's development trajectory
        2. 45.3.2. 45.2.2 Government support for industry R&D
        3. 45.3.3. 45.2.3 Japan's indigenous institutional systems for innovation
      3. 45.3. Industrial technology policy as a system
        1. 45.4.1. 45.3.1 Science and technology policy
        2. 45.4.2. 45.3.2 METI's inducing policy
        3. 45.4.3. 45.3.3 Vision as a soft-policy instrument
        4. 45.4.4. 45.3.4 National R&D program
      4. 45.4. Miscalculation of the growth trajectory and then a surge of reactivation
        1. 45.5.1. 45.4.1 Japan's contrast between co-evolution and its disengagement
        2. 45.5.2. 45.4.2 Surge in thereactivation of co-evolutionary dynamism
      5. 45.5. Hybrid management fusing the East and the West
        1. 45.6.1. 45.5.1 Japan's indigenous potential in fusing
        2. 45.6.2. 45.5.2 Surge in reactivation
        3. 45.6.3. 45.5.3 Global co-evolution for sustainabledevelopment
      6. 45.6. Conclusion
      7. 45.7. References and further reading
    8. 46. The National Innovation System of the Russian Federation
      1. 46.1. Introduction
      2. 46.2. R&D funding
      3. 46.3. Institutions of development
      4. 46.4. Programs and priorities
      5. 46.5. Strengths and weaknesses
      6. 46.6. Innovation in Russia
      7. 46.7. Looking to the future
      8. 46.8. References
    9. 47. The National Innovation System in Germany
      1. 47.1. Brief history and description of the National Innovation System in Germany
        1. 47.1.1. Current institutional structure and its evolution
        2. 47.1.2. The Science Council
        3. 47.1.3. The German Research Foundation
        4. 47.1.4. The Hermann von Helmholtz Association of Research Centers
        5. 47.1.5. The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science
        6. 47.1.6. The Fraunhofer Society
        7. 47.1.7. The Leibniz Science Association
        8. 47.1.8. The Center for Advanced European Studies and Research (CAESAR) Foundation
      2. 47.2. Summary of output trends (R&D expenditure, patents, etc.)
      3. 47.3. Technology commercialization initiatives (national level)
      4. 47.4. National technology policy
        1. 47.4.9. Innovation strategy
        2. 47.4.10. Germany as a location for research and innovation
        3. 47.4.11. The Joint Initiative for Research and Innovation
        4. 47.4.12. The €6,000 million program for research and development
      5. 47.5. Relative strengths and weaknesses in technology
      6. 47.6. Funds flow for innovation
      7. 47.7. Cultural and political drivers
        1. 47.6.13. Education system
        2. 47.6.14. Higher education
        3. 47.6.15. Initiative for Excellence
        4. 47.6.16. Vocational education and training
        5. 47.6.17. Dual training
      8. 47.8. Conclusion
      9. 47.9. References
    10. 48. The National Innovation System of Finland
      1. 48.1. Introduction1
      2. 48.2. National technology policy: emergence
      3. 48.3. Institutions
        1. 48.3.1. Technology and science parks
        2. 48.3.2. Educational system
        3. 48.3.3. Toward research corporations
      4. 48.4. Funding
      5. 48.5. Output trends and performance compared internationally
      6. 48.6. Looking to the future
      7. 48.7. References
    11. 49. The Dutch Innovation System: Raising the Lowland?
      1. 49.1. A brief history of the Dutch NIS from a national point of view
        1. 49.1.1. Dutch economic history after World War II
        2. 49.1.2. Innovation in the Netherlands after World War II
        3. 49.1.3. Concluding remarks on the historical development of the Dutch NIS
      2. 49.2. Summary of output and trends (R&D expenditure, patents)
      3. 49.3. Technology policy and commercialization initiatives at the national level
      4. 49.4. Relative strengths and weaknesses in technology
        1. 49.4.1. An ad hoc analysis of the Dutch innovation system
        2. 49.4.2. The Dutch innovation system from a cyclical perspective
        3. 49.4.3. An analysis of the Dutch innovation system on the basis of the functions of innovation systems
      5. 49.5. Funds flow for innovation12
      6. 49.6. Cultural and political drivers influencing the NIS
      7. 49.7. Concluding remarks
      8. 49.8. References
    12. 50. The National Innovation System of Italy
      1. 50.1. Introduction
      2. 50.2. A brief history of the Italian NIS: the dual-economy dilemma
      3. 50.3. Summary of output trends
      4. 50.4. Technology commercialization initiatives
      5. 50.5. National technology policy, including current technology commercialization initiatives at the national level
      6. 50.6. Relative strengths and weaknesses in technology
      7. 50.7. Funds flow for innovation
      8. 50.8. Cultural and political drivers influencing the NIS
      9. 50.9. Conclusion
      10. 50.10. References
    13. 51. The National Innovation System of Ireland
      1. 51.1. A brief history
        1. 51.1.1. Technology trajectories
        2. 51.1.2. Current institutional structures and evolution
          1. 51.1.2.1. Public and private institutions and their linkages
      2. 51.2. Summary of output trends
      3. 51.3. Technology commercialization initiatives (national level)
        1. 51.3.1. Private firm–level state support of SSTI
      4. 51.4. Relative strengths and weaknesses in technology
      5. 51.5. Funds flow for innovation
      6. 51.6. Cultural drivers
      7. 51.7. References
    14. 52. The U.S. National Innovation System
      1. 52.1. Nature and development of the U.S. National Innovation System
        1. 52.1.1. 52.1.1 Underlying conditions for innovation
          1. 52.1.1.1. 52.1.1.1 Incentives
          2. 52.1.1.2. 52.1.1.2 Government support
          3. 52.1.1.3. 52.1.1.3 Mix of entrepreneurial and large-firmcapitalism
          4. 52.1.1.4. 52.1.14 Societal institutions
        2. 52.1.2. 52.1.2 Breadth of technology
        3. 52.1.3. 52.1.3 Institutions
      2. 52.2. Trends in R&D and R&D output
        1. 52.2.1. 52.2.1 R&D expenditures
          1. 52.2.1.1. 52.2.1.2 Defense and civilian programs
          2. 52.2.1.2. 52.2.1.3 Industry, government, universities, and non-profits
          3. 52.2.1.3. 52.2.1.4 R&D by industry
          4. 52.2.1.4. 52.2.1.5 R&D by firm size
          5. 52.2.1.5. 52.2.1.6 R&D bystate
        2. 52.2.2. 52.2.2 R&D workforce
        3. 52.2.3. 52.2.3 R&D output as indicated by patents
          1. 52.2.3.1. 52.2.3.1 Long-term U.S. patent trend
          2. 52.2.3.2. 52.2.3.2 Internationalization of U.S. patent ownership
          3. 52.2.3.3. 52.2.3.3 Organization types of U.S. patent assignees
          4. 52.2.3.4. 52.2.3.4 Top patenting corporations
          5. 52.2.3.5. 52.2.3.5 Technologyclasses
          6. 52.2.3.6. 52.2.3.6 State differences
        4. 52.2.4. 52.2.4 R&D output as indicated by publications
      3. 52.3. Technology commercialization in small businesses
      4. 52.4. National innovation policy
        1. 52.4.1. 52.4.1 Programs and policies
        2. 52.4.2. 52.4.2 State programs
        3. 52.4.3. 52.4.3 2004–2007 policy initiatives
      5. 52.5. Technological strengths and weaknesses
      6. 52.6. Innovation
      7. 52.7. Culture and politics
        1. 52.7.1. 52.7.1 Drivers of aggregate federal R&D funding and funding areas
        2. 52.7.2. 52.7.2 Education
        3. 52.7.3. 52.7.3 Immigration
        4. 52.7.4. 52.7.4 Openness, mobility, and international relations
        5. 52.7.5. 52.7.5 Recent policy initiatives
      8. 52.8. Conclusion
      9. 52.9. References and further reading
    15. 53. Cooperative R&D Agreements (CRADAs)
      1. 53.1. References
    16. 54. University Licensing
      1. 54.1. References
  12. VII. Emerging Technologies
    1. 55. What Are Emerging Technologies?
      1. 55.1. Introduction
      2. 55.2. Why are emerging technologies important?
      3. 55.3. Managing emerging technologies: roles and responsibilities
      4. 55.4. Detection of emerging technologies
      5. 55.5. Summary
      6. 55.6. Reference
    2. 56. Biotechnology: The Technology of the 21st Century
      1. 56.1. Introduction
        1. 56.1.1. What exactly is meant by biotechnology?
      2. 56.2. Applications for biotechnology—past, current, and future1
        1. 56.2.1. "Red biotech"—applications of biotechnology in human and animal health
          1. 56.2.1.1. Diagnostics
          2. 56.2.1.2. Improved speed and accuracy
          3. 56.2.1.3. Lower costs of diagnosis
          4. 56.2.1.4. Earlier diagnosis leading to better prognosis and prevention measures
          5. 56.2.1.5. Public health–related preventive measures are now possible
          6. 56.2.1.6. Therapeutics
          7. 56.2.1.7. Using natural products
          8. 56.2.1.8. Replacing missing proteins
          9. 56.2.1.9. Gene therapy
          10. 56.2.1.10. Cell transplants
          11. 56.2.1.11. Modulating the immune system
          12. 56.2.1.12. Personalized medicine
          13. 56.2.1.13. Regenerative medicine
          14. 56.2.1.14. Vaccines
          15. 56.2.1.15. Plant-made pharmaceuticals
        2. 56.2.2. "Green biotech"—agricultural production and processing, animal health applications
          1. 56.2.2.1. Agricultural applications
          2. 56.2.2.2. Animal health
        3. 56.2.3. "White biotech"—industrial bioprocessing and environmental applications
          1. 56.2.3.1. Material and energy inputs
          2. 56.2.3.2. Efficient industrial manufacturing processes
          3. 56.2.3.3. Biofuel
          4. 56.2.3.4. Green plastics
          5. 56.2.3.5. Environmental biotechnology
          6. 56.2.3.6. Environmental monitoring
      3. 56.3. Technology trends in biotechnology—innovations, impact, and convergence
        1. 56.3.1. Drivers for technological innovation in knowledge-based sectors
        2. 56.3.2. Technology trends and innovation milestones in red biotech
          1. 56.3.2.1. Selected emerging technologies and materials in the nucleic acid diagnostics field
          2. 56.3.2.2. Convergence of technologies with biotechnology
      4. 56.4. References and further reading
    3. 57. The Continuing Economic Potential of Nanotechnology
      1. 57.1. Introduction1
      2. 57.2. Scope of nanotechnology
      3. 57.3. History and scientific developments
        1. 57.3.1. Key milestones
        2. 57.3.2. Patents
      4. 57.4. Nanotechnology funding
        1. 57.4.1. Worldwide
        2. 57.4.2. U.S. funding
      5. 57.5. Institutions and infrastructure
        1. 57.5.1. Overview
        2. 57.5.2. Universities and government-sponsored laboratories
        3. 57.5.3. Multinational corporations and high-tech startups
      6. 57.6. Economic foundations of nanotechnology
        1. 57.6.1. Differing perspectives
        2. 57.6.2. Impact on existing industries
        3. 57.6.3. The nanotechnology value chain
        4. 57.6.4. Nanotechnology products
          1. 57.6.4.1. Current status
          2. 57.6.4.2. Future projections of nanotechnology products
        5. 57.6.5. Market growth
      7. 57.7. Issues and challenges
        1. 57.7.1. Technical
        2. 57.7.2. Environment, health, and safety (EHS)
        3. 57.7.3. Legal
        4. 57.7.4. Education and training
        5. 57.7.5. Societal fears
      8. 57.8. Conclusion
      9. 57.9. References
    4. 58. Emerging Web Technologies
      1. 58.1. Introduction
      2. 58.2. Evolution of Web technologies
        1. 58.2.1. Web 1.0 technologies
        2. 58.2.2. Web 2.0 technologies
          1. 58.2.2.1. (a) User-generated content
          2. 58.2.2.2. (b) Crowdsourcing
          3. 58.2.2.3. (c) Participation and openness
          4. 58.2.2.4. (d) Network effects
          5. 58.2.2.5. (e) Technology
        3. 58.2.3. Web-based services resulting from Web 2.0
          1. 58.2.3.1. Blogs
          2. 58.2.3.2. Wikis
          3. 58.2.3.3. Multimedia-sharing services
          4. 58.2.3.4. Content syndication
          5. 58.2.3.5. Podcasting
          6. 58.2.3.6. Content tagging
        4. 58.2.4. Beyond Web 2.0 technologies and the future
          1. 58.2.4.1. Semantic wikis
          2. 58.2.4.2. Semantic blogging
          3. 58.2.4.3. Semantic desktop
      3. 58.3. References
  13. Glossary