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Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition

Book Description

Information acquisition and management has always had a profound impact on societal and organizational progression. However, as computing dramatically advances the level of intelligence associated with management technologies, the breadth of their dispersal, and ultimately the impact of the information itself, the utilization and management of information science and technology also gains profound importance. This change-driven environment creates a critical need for a comprehensive, up-to-date reference encompassing the full range of concepts, issues, methods, technologies, and trends associated with the field. The Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition is a 10-volume compilation of authoritative, research-based articles contributed by thousands of researchers and experts from all over the world. This discipline-defining encyclopedia will serve research needs in numerous fields that are affected by the rapid pace and substantial impact of technological change. With an emphasis on modern issues and the presentation of potential opportunities, prospective solutions, and future directions in the field, it is a relevant and essential addition to any academic library’s reference collection.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Editorial Advisory Board
    3. Editorial Review Board
  5. Preface
  6. Guide to the Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition
    1. Organization
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. About the Editor
  9. Section 1: Accounting and Finance
    1. Chapter 1: High Frequency Trading
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. MARKET QUALITY AND REGULATORY ASPECTS
      4. 4. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HFT
      5. 5. CONCLUSION
      6. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Innovation of Management Accounting Practices and Techniques
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING INNOVATIONS
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. DIFFUSION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING INNOVATIONS IN PRACTICE
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Meta-Digital Accounting in the Context of Cloud Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIGITAL ACCOUNTING IN CLOUD COMPUTING
      4. META-DIGITAL ACCOUNTING: A PROJECT OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Operating Room Management Accounting and Cost Calculation Model for Operating Rooms
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Sustainability Reporting Framework for Voluntary Reporting or Disclosure in Turkey
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Technology-Based Mergers and Acquisitions
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A REVIEW OF RESEARCH
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 2: Artificial Intelligence
    1. Chapter 7: Applications of Swarm Intelligence in Remanufacturing
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. SI-BASED APPROACHES IN USED PRODUCT RETRIEVAL
      4. 4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. 5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. 6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 8: Architecture as a Problem Solving Tool
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: CONCEPT OF ARCHITECTURE IN COMMERCE
      3. ARCHITECTURE USE IN COMMERCE IS LIMITED
      4. ARCHITECTURE AS A SOLUTIONS TOOL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 9: Artificial Intelligence and Investing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLIED TO FINANCE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 10: Assessing Collaborative Problem Solving through Computer Agent Technologies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STUDYING HUMAN-TO-AGENT AND HUMAN-TO-HUMAN COMPARABILITY
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 11: Audio-Visual Speech Emotion Recognition
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 12: Classification Reasoning as a Basic Part of Machine Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. GOOD CLASSIFICATION TEST CONSTRUCTION AS A REASONING PROCESS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 13: Cognitive Approaches for Intelligent Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LEARNING AND REASONING FOR INTELLIGENT NETWORKS
      4. BIO INSPIRED INTELLIGENT NETWORK
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 14: Cuckoo Search for Optimization and Computational Intelligence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CUCKOO SEARCH
      4. VARIANTS OF CUCKOO SEARCH
      5. APPLICATIONS IN OPTIMIZATION AND COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINTIONS
    9. Chapter 15: Emotion-Based Music Retrieval
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MUSIC EMOTION MODEL
      4. FEATURE EXTRACTION AND SELECTION
      5. A WELL-REDUCED JOINT EMOTION SPACE
      6. EMOTION-BASED MUSIC RETRIEVAL
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 16: Hybrid Computational Intelligence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 17: Hybrid Genetic Metaheuristic for Two-Dimensional Constrained Guillotinable Cutting Problems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RESOLUTION METHODS
      4. PROBLEMS
      5. CONTRIBUTIONS
      6. EXPERIMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 18: Hybrid Swarm Intelligence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SWARM INTELLIGENCE
      4. APPLICATIONS OF ACO-PSO HYBRID ALGORITHM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 19: Infinite Petri Nets as Models of Grids
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. BASIC NOTIONS AND DEFINITIONS
      6. LINEAR INFINITE STRUCTURE
      7. GENERALIZED MODEL OF A COMMUNICATION DEVICE
      8. RECTANGULAR INFINITE STRUCTURE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 20: Machine Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EMPIRICAL CONCEPT LEARNING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 21: Machine Learning for Image Classification
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DISCRIMINANT SPARSE CODING
      4. LEARNING DICTIONARY ON MANIFOLDS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 22: Prediction of Major Earthquakes as Rare Events Using RF-Typed Polynomial Neural Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PREDICTING MAJOR EARTHQUAKES AS RARE EVENTS BY LOGISTIC REGRESSION
      4. OPTIMAL MAJOR EARTHQUAKE PREDICTION MODEL BY RF-PNN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 23: Present State of Swarm Intelligence and Future Directions
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON SWARM INTELLIGENCE BASED ALGORITHMS
      4. FUTURE RESARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 24: Probabilistic Methods in Automatic Speech Recognition
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE ARCHITECTURE OF LARGE VOCABULARY SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEMS
      4. FEATURE EXTRACTION AND THE ACOUSTIC MODEL
      5. THE LANGUAGE MODEL
      6. SCORING
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. Chapter 25: Recent Advancements in Gabor Wavelet-Based Face Recognition
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FACE RECOGNITION USING GABOR WAVELET
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 26: Stochastic Neural Network Classifiers
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. MODEL
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 27: The Bees Algorithm as a Biologically Inspired Optimisation Method
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE BEES ALGORITHM
      4. COMMON APPLICATIONS OF THE BEES ALGORITHM
      5. APPLICATION CASE: ROBOT MANIPULATOR CONTROL
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    22. Chapter 28: The Still Image Lossy Compression Standard - JPEG
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE JPEG ALGORITHM
      4. FEATURES OF JPEG
      5. ERROR RECOVERY
      6. JPEG-2000
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    23. Chapter 29: Variable Importance Evaluation for Machine Learning Tasks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHODS FOR VARIABLE SELECTION AND IMPORTANCE EVALUATION
      4. SCATTER METHOD FOR IMPORTANCE EVALUATION OF VARIABLES AND CLASSES IN DATA SETS
      5. A MEDICAL DATA SET AND ITS SCATTER METHOD TEST RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 3: Assistive Technologies
    1. Chapter 30: Assistive Navigation Systems for the Visually Impaired
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 31: Context-Aware Computing for Persons with Disabilities
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CONTEXT-AWARE COMPUTING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 32: Mobile Technologies for Elderly People
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. MOTIVATION
      4. 4. TECHNOLOGIES
      5. 5. RESEARCH AND PROJECTS
      6. 6. CONCLUSION
      7. 7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 33: Visual Disabilities, Information Technology, and the Learning of Mathematics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ADVANCED MATHEMATICS AND THE NEED FOR EXTRA HELP
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 4: Big Data
    1. Chapter 34: Big Data Analytics for Business
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 35: Big Data Issues and Challenges
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BIG DATA: THE CHALLENGES
      4. BIG DATA: AN ETHICAL DILEMMA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 36: Leadership for Big Data and Business Intelligence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 37: NoSQL Databases
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. RELATIONAL AND NON-RELATIONAL DATABASES
      5. HIGH PERFORMANCE AND FLEIXIBLE SCHEMA
      6. REPLICATION: HIGH AVAILABILITY
      7. SHARDING: EASY SCALABILITY USING AUTOMATIC SHARDING
      8. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Section 5: Bioinformatics
    1. Chapter 38: Bioinformatics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BIOINFORMATICS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
      4. BIOINFORMATICS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF BIOSCIENCE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 39: Demographic Characterization of Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 40: Glycoinformatics and Glycosciences
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. GLYCOBIOLOGY TO GLYCOMICS
      4. REPRESENTING AND ENCODING CARBOHYDRATE STRUCTURES
      5. HIGH-THROUGHPUT TECHNIQUES IN GLYCOBIOLOGY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 41: Methodologies for Modeling Gene Regulatory Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES FOR MODELING GENE REGULATORY NETWORKS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  14. Section 6: Biology
    1. Chapter 42: Clustering Techniques for Revealing Gene Expression Patterns
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SUPERVISED VS. UNSUPERVISED CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS
      4. CLUSTERING THROUGH CORRELATION GRAPHS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 43: Computational Biology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COMPUTATIONAL GENOMICS
      4. BIONETWORKING AND FUZZY LOGIC
      5. PROTEIN FOLDING
      6. COMPUTATIONAL EVOLUTION
      7. SYSTEMS BIOLOGY
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 44: Structural Equation Modeling for Systems Biology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. Section 7: Biomedical Engineering
    1. Chapter 45: An Overview of Intra-Body Communication Transceivers for Biomedical Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IBC APPLICATIONS
      4. CHALLENGES OF IBC TRANSCEIVER DESIGN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 46: Structural and Computational Approaches in Drug Design for G Protein-Coupled Receptors
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Section 8: Biometrics
    1. Chapter 47: A Comprehensive Survey on Face Image Analysis
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TECHNIQUE OVERVIEW
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 48: Advances in Emotional Picture Classification
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CLASSIFICATION WITH SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 49: Biometric Template Security and Biometric Encryption Using Fuzzy Frameworks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BIOMETRIC ENCRYPTION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 50: Brain Prints for Biometrics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 51: Facial Expression Recognition
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATASETS
      4. STATIC METHODS
      5. TEMPORAL METHODS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  17. Section 9: Business and Organizational Research
    1. Chapter 52: Business Model Value Creation, Value Capture, and Information Technologies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BUSINESS MODEL OF THE FIRM
      4. CUSTOMER VALUE: ITS CREATION AND CAPTURE
      5. BUSINESS MODEL AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 53: Competitive Intelligence from Social Media, Web 2.0, and the Internet
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE FOR BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
      4. INTERNET USE FOR COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE
      5. SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKING AND WEB 2.0
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 54: Conflicts and Resolutions in Computer Supported Collaborative Work Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DETECTING CONFLICTS IN CSCW APPLICATIONS
      4. MANAGING CONFLICTS IN CSCW APPLICATIONS
      5. RELATED WORK
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 55: Coopetition for Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF COOPETITION
      3. FEASIBILITY OF COOPETITION PERSPECTIVE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 56: Exploration and Exploitation Capabilities
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DEFINITION OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 57: Knowledge Fusion Patterns for Context Aware Decision Support
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. KNOWLEDGE FUSION PROCESSES AND KNOWLEDGE FUSION PATTERNS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 58: Learning-by-Exporting
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LEARNING-BY-EXPORTING IN VIEW OF THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 59: Mixed Methods in Knowledge Management and Organisational Research
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PARADIGMS AND THE CALL FOR PRAGMATISM
      4. DIMENSIONS OF BRICOLAGE
      5. FACTORS INFLUENCING ADOPTION AND DESIGN DECISIONS
      6. CORE CAPABILITIES
      7. CORE CHALLENGES AND CRITIQUES
      8. ADDRESSING THE INTEGRATION ISSUE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 60: PPP as a Tool for Stimulating Investments in ICT Infrastructures
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 61: Promotion of Administrative Modernization through Processes Dematerialization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: DEMATERIALIZATION PROCESS
      3. THE PROJECT OF DEMATERIALIZATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 62: Qualitative Research on Practice in Small Software Companies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 63: Research Conducted by Professional Information Systems Practitioners in Organisations in South Africa
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND TO PRACTITIONER RESEARCH
      3. ROLE OF PRACTITIONER RESEARCH IN THE RESEARCH DOMAIN
      4. FAMILY OF COMPUTING DISCIPLINES
      5. IS PROFESSIONALS IN THE IS DISCIPLINE
      6. THE INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS SOUTH AFRICA (IITPSA) AND PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP
      7. SOME PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROLE OF RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN BY THE PROFESSIONAL IS PRACTITIONER
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 64: The Rhetoric of Corporate Governance Legality
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
      3. HISTORY OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
      4. AGENCY THEORY
      5. BACKGROUND OF AGENCY THEORY
      6. INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
      7. APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
  18. Section 10: Business Education
    1. Chapter 65: Aligning Technology with Workforce and Organizational Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. WORKFORCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 66: An Exploration of Designing E-Remanufacturing Course
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. MOTIVATION FOR COURSE DEVELOPMENT
      4. 4. E-REMANUFACTURING COURSE DESIGN
      5. 5. NETLOGO AS AN EDUATION TOOL
      6. 6. ASSIGNMENT EXAMPLE IN NETLOGO
      7. 7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 67: Enhancing Business Education with Technology Using Social Media to Aid Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STUDENTS’ USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO AID LEARNING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. Section 11: Business Information Systems
    1. Chapter 68: A Fabric Resource Management System (FRMS) for Fashion Product Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FABRIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FRMS)
      4. FUTURE RESESARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 69: A Proactive Approach for Managing the Organizational Impacts of IT
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. WHY TREAT ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES?
      3. THE RATIONALE FOR PROACTIVELY MANAGING
      4. A BENEFITS ORIENTED APPROACH FOR MANAGING THE ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS OF ITA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 70: A Study of Mobile Payment (M-Payment) Services Adoption in Thailand
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 71: An Historical Account of Executive Information Systems Research in South Africa
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND TO EIS IMPLEMENTATION
      3. EIS RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN IN SOUTH AFRICA
      4. DISCUSSION OF PREVIOUS EIS RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN IN SOUTH AFRICA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 72: Building Inclusive IS&T Work Climates for Women and Men
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STRATEGIES FOR BUILDING AN INCLUSIVE CLIMATE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 73: Deploying a Software Process Lifecycle Standard in Very Small Companies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STRUCTURE OF ISO/IEC 29110
      4. DEPLOYING ISO/IEC 29110
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 74: Efficient Ordering Policy for Imperfect Quality Items Using Association Rule Mining
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CALCULATING EOQ OF IMPERFECT QUALITY ITEMS USING CROSS-SELLING EFFECT
      4. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE TO CALCULATE EOQ BY USING RULES OBTAINED BY APRIORI ALGORITHM
      5. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE TO CALCULATE EOQ BY USING RULES OBTAINED BY TEMPORAL ASSOCIATION RULE MINING
      6. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 75: ICT as a Tool in Industrial Networks for Assessing HSEQ Capabilities in a Collaborative Way
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTEGRATED MULTIPLE MANAGEMENT HSEQ ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR MANUFACTURING NETWORK
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 685: A Conflict Classification and Resolution Modeling in Multi-Agent Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LIMITATION OF EXISTING APPROACH
      4. A PROPOSED CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGY
      5. CONFLICT CLASSIFICATION
      6. A PROPOSED CLASSIFICATION MODEL
      7. MODELLING CONFLICT RATIO AND DISAGREEMENT DEGREE
      8. USING CONFLICT STRENGTH AND AGENT CONFIDENCE TO SELECT CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGY
      9. Strategies Integration
      10. CASE STUDY: HEALTH CARE APPLICATION
      11. System Design
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 686: A Proposed Novel Description Language in Digital System Modeling
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MICROARCHITECTURE MODELING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 687: A Short Review of Fuzzy Linear Equation Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SQUARE SYSTEMS
      4. NONSQUARE SYSTEMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 688: Advanced and Delayed Information in Requirements Engineering
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EXTEMPORANEOUS INFORMATION
      4. EXTEMPORANEOUS INFORMATION SIZE
      5. TREATMENT OF EI
      6. SOME PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 689: Advanced Real Time Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 690: Advances in Fault-Tolerant Multi-Agent Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THREATS IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS
      4. CURRENT RESEARCH ON FAULT-TOLERANT MAS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 691: Agile Scrum
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SCRUM PROCESS
      4. SCRUM CASE STUDIES
      5. SCRUM PROBLEMS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 692: Application of Web-Based Geographical Information System (GIS) In Tourism Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
      3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 693: Aspect-Oriented Programming
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ASPECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING: HISTORY, TOOLS, AND PERSPECTIVES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 694: Business Process Modeling Languages and Tools
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PROMINENT MODELING LANGUAGES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. Chapter 695: Classification of Network Optimization Software Packages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NETWORK OPTIMIZATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 696: Constructing New Venues for Service Improvements Using the Architecture of Preventive Service Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 697: Detecting Inconsistency in the Domain-Engineering
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. SCALABILITY EXPERIMENTS
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    22. Chapter 698: Emerging ICT-Based Methods in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Context
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PROGRAMS TO ENHANCE ADOPTION OF ICT
      4. EXAMPLES OF IMPLEMENTING ICT IN THE AEC CONTEXT
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    23. Chapter 699: Energy Efficiency Using the Fast Reroute Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. THE CORE OF OUR APPROACH
      5. 4. EXPERIMENTATION
      6. 5. CASE STUDY
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    24. Chapter 700: Enhancing Formal Methods with Feature Models in MDD
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE RAISE SPECIFICATION LANGUAGE
      4. AN OVERVIEW OF THE DERIVATION PROCESS
      5. THE TRANSFORMATION: FROM FEATURE MODEL TO RSL SCHEMES
      6. THE TRANSFORMATION RULES
      7. FORMALIZING THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS WITH ATL
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    25. Chapter 701: Enterprise Dynamic Systems Control
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EDSC: ONTOLOGICAL BUSINESS TRANSACTIONS STEERING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    26. Chapter 702: Ethical Conflicts Regarding Technical Assistance Systems for the Elderly
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IMPLEMENTING ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: HOPES AND RISKS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    27. Chapter 703: Evolvable Hardware
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EVOLVABLE HARDWARE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    28. Chapter 704: Formal Methods Overview
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. FORMAL LANGUAGES, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS
      4. 4. STYLES AND DEGREES IN FORMALITY
      5. 5. A CASE STUDY
      6. 6. LIGHTWEIGHT FORMAL METHODS
      7. 7. MODEL CHECKING
      8. 8. CONCLUSION
      9. 9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    29. Chapter 705: Formal Verification Methods
      1. BACKGROUND
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEOREM PROVING
      4. SYMBOLIC SIMULATION
      5. MODEL CHECKING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    30. Chapter 706: From Stories to Histories in Making Sense of IS Failure
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DESCRIBING FAILURE
      4. FROM CASE STUDIES TO CASE HISTORIES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    31. Chapter 707: Method of System's Potential as Holistic Approach for CAS-Modelling
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MSP-APPROACH FOR CAS-MODELLING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. Acknowledgment
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    32. Chapter 708: Modeling Knowledge Society
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. APPRECIATION OF KNOWLEDGE IN DISCOURSE ON CIVILIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE
      4. MORE ON KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY MODELING AND ITS REQUIREMENTS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    33. Chapter 709: Moment-Based Image Watermarking Principles, Perspectives, and Challenges
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE-STATE-OF-THE-ART
      4. MOMENT-BASED WATERMARKING FRAMEWORK
      5. CHALLENGES IN MOMENT-BASED IMAGE WATERMARKING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    34. Chapter 710: Mutation Testing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MUTATION TESTING OVERVIEW
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    35. Chapter 711: Novel Algorithmic Approach to Deciphering Rovash Inscriptions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE NOVEL SCRIPT IDENTIFICATION METHOD
      5. MAIN ALGORITHM
      6. Parameter Matrix-Based Algorithm
      7. DEVELOPED AND APPLIED ERROR CALCULATION PROCESSES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    36. Chapter 712: Optimal Preemptively Scheduling for Real-Time Reconfigurable Uniprocessor Embedded Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. GUARANTEE ALGORITHM
      4. STATE OF THE ART
      5. NEW APPROACH WITH DEADLINE TOLERANCE
      6. CONTRIBUTION: AN ALGORITHM FOR FEASIBILITY TESTING WITH RESPECT TO SPORADIC TASK SYSTEMS
      7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    37. Chapter 713: Real-Time Communication Support in IEEE 802.11-Based Wireless Mesh Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION SUPPORT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    38. Chapter 714: Recommender Systems Review of Types, Techniques, and Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RECOMMENDATION FILTERING TECHNIQUES/ALGORITHMS
      5. TYPES OF RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS
      6. EVALUATION OF RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    39. Chapter 715: Reversible Logic as a Stepping Stone to Quantum Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    40. Chapter 716: Reversible Watermarking
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MULTIBIT DIFFERENCE EXPANSION REVERSIBLE WATERMARKING
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    41. Chapter 717: RFID/WSN Middleware Approach for Container Monitoring
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND OF CONTAINERS TRANSPORTATION AND THE SUPPORTING TECHNOLOGIES
      3. REVIEW OF THE APPLIED MIDDLEWARE WITH EXAMPLES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    42. Chapter 718: ScaleSem Approach to Check and to Query Semantic Graphs
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE SCALESEM APPROACH
      4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT
      5. RELATED WORK
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    43. Chapter 719: Scrum Software Development Methodology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SCRUM METHODOLOGY
      5. ADVANTAGES OF SCRUM DEVELOPMENT
      6. DISADVANTAGES OF SCRUM DEVELOPMENT
      7. OVERCOMING IMPEDIMENTS TO SCRUM IN PRACTICE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    44. Chapter 720: SDSS Based on GIS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKROUND
      4. ROLE OF GIS
      5. TWO LEVELS OF SDSS
      6. EXISTING SOLUTION FOR ESRI PLATFORM
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    45. Chapter 721: Semi-Supervised Dimension Reduction Techniques to Discover Term Relationships
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    46. Chapter 722: Signal Processing for Financial Markets
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR FINANCIAL MARKETS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    47. Chapter 723: Software Modernization and the State-of-the-Art and Challenges
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MODERNIZATION TECHNIQUES
      4. SUMMING-UP THE PARTS: A FRAMEWORK FOR ADM-BASED REVERSE ENGINEERING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    48. Chapter 724: State of the Art of Software Architecture Design Methods Used in Main Software Development Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPARISON OF SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN METHODS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    49. Chapter 725: Supporting Real-Time Communication in Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CHALLENGES OF REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION IN IEEE 802.15.X
      4. LARGE-SCALE AND REAL-TIME ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN WSN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    50. Chapter 726: Systems and Software Engineering in IT System Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF SOFTWARE SYSTEMS
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    51. Chapter 727: Using Metaheuristics as Soft Computing Techniques for Efficient Optimization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STATE OF THE ART: CURRENT RESEARCH LINES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    52. Chapter 728: Using Wiki for Agile Software Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A Conceptual Model for the Use of Wiki for Managing Content in Agile Software Development
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. Section 96: Teacher Education
    1. Chapter 729: Ubiquitous Professional Training for Teachers using the uProf! Model
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE uPROF! MODEL
      4. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AN OPTIMAL IMPLEMENTATION
      5. uPROF! IN COMUNITA’ DI PRATICA PROGETTO EUREKA
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 730: Using an Adapted Continuous Practice Improvement Model to Support the Professional Development of Teachers in a Collaborative Online Environment
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. UTILISING AN ADAPTED VERSION OF THE CPI PROGRAMME
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. Section 97: Theoretical Computer Science
    1. Chapter 731: A Scientist-Poet's Account of Ontology in Information Science
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. WHAT IS ONTOLOGY IN INFORMATION SCIENCE?
      4. A NATURALISTIC APPROACH: APPLIED COMPUTATIONAL ONTOLOGY
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 732: Adaptive Interoperable Models of All Things Based on Human Language
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A UNIVERSAL MODELING SYSTEM
      4. MODELS OF LEARNING, MEMORY, PERCEPTION, COMMUNICATION, AND MATH
      5. MODELS OF PSYCHOLOGY (EMOTIONS)
      6. MODELS OF BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
      7. MODELS OF SOCIOLOGY, LAW, AND POLITICS
      8. MODELS OF SPIRITUAL PROCESSES
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 733: Information Physics and Complex Information Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INFORMATION PHYSICS
      4. COMPLEX INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 734: What are Ontologies Useful For?
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. USING ONTOLOGIES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
  22. Section 98: Urban and Regional Development
    1. Chapter 735: Geospatial Semantic Web for Spatial Data Sharing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ISSUES
      4. THE GEOSPATIAL SEMANTIC WEB SOLUTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 736: Knowledge-Based Urban Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. KNOWLEDGE-BASED DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES AND COMMUNITY PRECINCTS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  23. Section 99: Virtual Learning Environments
    1. Chapter 737: A Review of Virtualisation and Cloud Computing for Higher Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VIRTUALISATION
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 738: Attributes of Successful Online Students and Instructors
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ATTRIBUTES OF SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS AND INSTRUCTORS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 739: Augmented Reality Based E-Learning Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. AUGMENTED REALITY BASED E-LEARNING APPLICATIONS
      4. CONTRIBUTIONS OF AUGMENTED REALITY BASED E-LEARNING APPLICATIONS TO EDUCATIONAL PROCESSES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 740: Development of Individual Agency within a Collaborative, Creative Learning Community
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE CHALLENGE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 741: Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and the Technologies That Support Learning with Them
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CHARACTERIZING MOOCs
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 742: Open Source Virtual Worlds for E-Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHOD
      4. ANTICIPATED VALIDATIONS AND FUNCTIONALITIES
      5. THE POLYMORPHIC DIMENSIONS OF STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 743: Roles of Online Instructors Apt for Students' Cognitive and Affective learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS: ONLINE INSTRUCTORS’ ROLES
      4. COURSE DEVELOPMENT
      5. COURSE DELIVERY
      6. COURSE COMPLETION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 744: UX Quality with Online Learning Systems and Course Materials
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. VLE AND ONLINE COURSE MATERIAL BACKGROUND
      3. CONCEPTS RELATED TO UX QUALITY WITH ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEMS
      4. UX QUALITY OF ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEMS: THE BEST PRACTICES OF REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 745: Virtual Communities of Inquiry
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES OF INQUIRY: VALIDATIONS AND AFFORDANCES
      4. EMERGING ISSUES FOR THE BENEFICIAL FORMALIZATION OF A VCOI
      5. A PRACTICAL DESIGN GUIDE FOR CREATING A VCOI
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  24. Section 100: Web Technologies
    1. Chapter 746: A Review on Semantic Similarity
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DISCUSSION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 747: Advanced Analytics for Big Data
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COMPLEX PROBLEMS
      4. ANALYTIC TAXONOMIES
      5. THE ANALYTIC ECOSYSTEM
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 748: Audiovisual Hypermedia in the Semantic Web
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. AUDIOVISUAL HYPERMEDIA: AUTHORING FOR THE SEMANTIC WEB
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 749: Digital Object Memory
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIGITAL OBJECT MEMORY
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 750: Enhancing the Trustworthiness of Web Services Coordination
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TRUSTWORTHINESS ENHANCING TECHNIQUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 751: Internet of Things (IoT)
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. KEY TECHNOLOGIES
      4. RESEARCH PROJECTS
      5. ARCHITECTURE
      6. APPLICATIONS
      7. OPEN ISSUES – CHALLENGES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 752: Mobile Web Accessibility and Government Compliance
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. WEB ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES
      4. MOBILE ACCESSIBILITY FACTORS
      5. WCAG 2.0 UPDATES
      6. WEB ACCESSIBILITY COMPLIANCE
      7. MOBILE ACCESSIBILITY INITIATIVE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. Endnotes
    8. Chapter 753: Schema Evolution
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCHEMA EVOLUTION
      4. DBMS SUPPORT FOR SCHEMA EVOLUTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 754: Schema Versioning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CURRENT RESEARCH IN SCHEMA VERSIONING
      4. DBMS SUPPORT FOR SCHEMA VERSIONING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 755: The Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Its Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RDF SCHEMA
      4. THE WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE
      5. TOOLS
      6. APPLICATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 756: Web Analytics Overview
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
      4. PRIVACY AND ACCURACY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 757: Web Archiving
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. TOOLS AND SERVICES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 758: Web Navigation Systems for Information Seeking
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. WEB NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 76: Implementing Enterprise Resource Planning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 77: Inductive Reasoning, Information Symmetry, and Power Asymmetry in Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: INDUCTION AND DEDUCTION IN DECISION MAKING
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 78: Information Science and Technology in Franchising
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. UNDERSTANDING THE FRANCHISOR
      4. UNDERSTANDING THE FRANCHISEE
      5. DEVELOPING THE FRANCHISOR/FRANCHISEE FAMILY RELATIONSHIP
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 79: Interdependence, Uncertainty, and Incompleteness in Teams and Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    18. Chapter 80: IT Outsourcing in the Face of Global and Technology Challenges
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OUTSOURCING FRAMEWORKS
      4. 4RS: AN OUTSOURCING FRAMEWORK
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. Chapter 81: Modeling Academic ERP Issues and Innovations with AST
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 82: Modern Information Technology for Suitable Development in Small Business with Links to Agile Methodology and Swarm Intelligence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS ON IT IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUITABLE DEVELOPMENT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 83: Omni-Channel Retail Information Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND OF RETAIL TRANSFORMATION
      3. CHARACTERISING OMNI-CHANNEL RETAILING
      4. CASE: HYPERMARKET
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    22. Chapter 84: Only One Evolving Strategy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MULTIPLE STRATEGIES
      4. ALIGNMENT
      5. CONSTANT CHANGE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    23. Chapter 85: Ontology-Based Sentiment Analysis Model of Customer Reviews for Electronic Products
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    24. Chapter 86: Organization Innovation and Its Implications for the Implementation of Information Systems
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CHARACTERISTICS
      3. SYSTEMATIC COMPONENT MODEL
      4. CASE: IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS OF AN ERP SYSTEM
      5. ORGANIZATIONAL CONSTRUCTION MODEL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    25. Chapter 87: Simulation to Improve Management of Perishable and Substitutable Inventory
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE USE OF SIMULATION IN CREATING POLICIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PERISHABLE INVENTORY
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    26. Chapter 88: Sociotechnical Change Perspective for Enterprise Resource Planning System Implementation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR A UNIFIED ENTERPRISE VIEW THROUGH ERP
      3. GENERAL MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ERP IMPLEMENTATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    27. Chapter 89: The Role of Management Accounting and Control Systems as Information Networks and as Networks of Relationships on the Development of Organizational Knowledge
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. MACS, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE
      4. 4. MACS IN THE PROCESSES OF CREATION AND INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE
      5. 5. CONCLUSION
      6. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    28. Chapter 90: Understanding Interactive Technology in Organizational Settings
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOVING THE USER EXPERIENCE APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    29. Chapter 91: Using Fuzzy Logic for Optimizing Business Intelligence Success in Multiple Investment Combinations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGNING FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  25. Section 12: Civil Engineering
    1. Chapter 92: Forecasting Techniques for Energy Optimization in Buildings
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OPTIMIZATION IN BUILDINGS
      4. FORECASTING METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 93: Methodologies of Damage Identification Using Non-Linear Data-Driven Modelling
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 94: Validation of Damage Identification Using Non-Linear Data-Driven Modelling
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      3. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  26. Section 13: Clinical Science and Technologies
    1. Chapter 95: Ecological Validity in Virtual Reality-Based Neuropsychological Assessment
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 96: Electronic Cognitive Exercises
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IMPLEMENTATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  27. Section 14: Cloud Computing
    1. Chapter 97: A Framework Model for a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) Strategy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FRAMEWORK MODEL FOR SOFTWARE-AS-A-SERVICE (SAAS) STRATEGY
      4. CASE STUDY OF SOFTWARE-AS-A-SERVICE (SAAS) IN FINANCIAL FIRMS - DETAIL
      5. CASE STUDY OF SOFTWARE-AS-A-SERVICE (SAAS) IN FINANCIAL FIRMS - SUMMARY
      6. KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FROM CASE STUDY
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 98: Cloud Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IMPLEMENTING CLOUD COMPUTING
      4. SECURITY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 99: Cloud Computing as a Model
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CLOUD MODELS
      4. CLOUD ISSUES
      5. BUSINESS CASES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 100: Cloud Computing Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COMPARING TRADITIONAL IT DEPLOYMENTS AND CLOUD COMPUTING DEPLOYMENTS
      4. ADDRESSING CLOUD SECURITY CONCERNS
      5. MAKING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR CLOUD DEPLOYMENTS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 101: Cloud Computing to Improve Agri-Supply Chains in Developing Countries
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. OVERVIEW OF AGRI-SUPPLY CHAINS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY THE FARMERS
      3. ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN AGRI-SUPPLY CHAIN
      4. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY
      5. APPLICATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN AGRICULTURE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 102: Is It Now the Right Time to Migrate Enterprise Systems to the Cloud?
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: FROM ON-PREMISE TO CLOUD-BASED ERP
      3. BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOUD-BASED ERP
      4. CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH CLOUD-BASED ERP
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 103: Rough Set Based Green Cloud Computing in Emerging Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-MARKETING AND GREEN CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. MAPREDUCE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 104: Should the Cloud Computing Definition Include a Big Data Perspective?
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE CAR ANALOGY
      4. COMMON FACTORS OBSERVED WHEN MIGRATING TO CLOUD COMPUTING
      5. ESSENTIAL VS. OPTIONAL CLOUD COMPUTING CHARACTERISTICS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 105: Virtualization as the Catalyst for Cloud Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. VIRTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES FOR X86 HARDWARE
      4. VIRTUALIZATION OF VIRTUAL MEMORY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  28. Section 15: Cognitive Informatics
    1. Chapter 106: Application of Cognitive Map in Knowledge Management
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. KNOWLEDGE PROCESS THROUGH CMS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 107: Binding Neuron
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIRECT REDUCTION TO LOW-LEVEL CONCEPTS IS UNFEASIBLE
      4. THE BINDING NEURON CONCEPT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 108: Programmable Logic Controllers
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PLCS: THEIR DESIGN AND APPLICATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 109: Schema Satisfaction Reasoning and Its Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HOPFIELD NETWORK AS ALTERNATIVE FOR IMPLEMENTING CONSTRAINT SATISFACTION IN A NETWORKED MANNER
      4. SCHEMAS AS MEANS FOR REPRESENTING ASSOCIATIONS AND RELATIONS BETWEEN FACTS
      5. A SCENARIO EXAMPLE FOR SCHEMA SATISFACTION NETWORK
      6. SOME APPLICATIONS OF SCHEMA SATISFACTION REASONING
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 110: Usability Evaluation of the Tablet Computer ‘Aakash-2'
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. SELECTION PROCESS
      5. COGNITIVE WALKTHROUGH
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
  29. Section 16: Computer Engineering
    1. Chapter 111: A Framework for Assessing the Quality of Online Computer Programming Courses
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A FRAMEWORK TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE PROGRAMMING COURSES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 112: Hypervisor-Based Server Virtualization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. VIRTUALIZATION ARCHITECTURE
      4. MANAGING HYPERVISOR-BASED VIRTUALIZATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 113: Measuring Shared Mental Models in Unmanned Aircraft Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MEASURING MENTAL MODELS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 114: Object-Driven Action Rules
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OBJECT-DRIVEN ACTION RULES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 115: Spreadsheet Modeling of Data Center Hotspots
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  30. Section 17: Computer Simulation
    1. Chapter 116: An Overview of Multi-Agent Simulation in Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. APPLICATIONS OF MULTI-AGENT SIMULATION IN ORGANIZATIONS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 117: Applying Graphics Processing Unit Technologies to Agent-Based Simulation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. AGENT-BASED SIMULATIONS USING THE GPU
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 118: Behavioral Modeling
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 119: Computer Assisted Problem Solving Environment (PSE)
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND OF PSE (PROBLEM SOLVING ENVIRONMENT) FOR SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING SUPPORT
      3. EXAMPLE PSES IN SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING
      4. UNCERTAINTY IN SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING
      5. PSE FOR UNCERTAINTY MANAGEMENT: A FUTURE DIRECTION OF PSE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 120: System Dynamics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. STRUCTURE OF SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELS
      5. MODELLING PROCEDURES
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 121: Using Semantics in the Environment for Multiagent-Based Simulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC IN ENVIRONMENTS
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  31. Section 18: Computer Vision and Image Processing
    1. Chapter 122: Image Inpainting as an Evolving Topic in Image Engineering
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SPARSE REPRESENTATION
      4. WEIGHTED SPARSE NMF
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 123: Up-to-Date Summary of Semantic-Based Visual Information Retrieval
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MULTI-LEVEL SEMANTIC IMAGE RETRIEVAL
      4. PROGRESS REVIEW AND SUMMARY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 124: Variants of Genetic Algorithm for Efficient Design of Multiplier-Less Finite Impulse Response Digital Filter
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. NOTION OF MULTIPLIER-LESS FIR FILTER
      4. DESIGN OF SPT FILTER AS AN OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
      5. DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM
      6. EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  32. Section 19: Criminal Science and Forensics
    1. Chapter 125: Digital Video Tampering Detection Techniques
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TYPES OF VIDEO TAMPERING ATTACKS
      4. PROBLEM DEFINITION
      5. SOLUTION FOR SPATIAL TAMPERING DETECTION IN PASSIVE VIDEO
      6. PIXEL BASED
      7. CAMERA FEATURE BASED
      8. PHYSICS BASED
      9. GEOMETRIC MEASUREMENT
      10. SOLUTION FOR TEMPORAL TAMPERING DETCTION IN PASSIVE VIDEO
      11. SOLUTION FOR SPATIO-TEMPORALTAMPERING DETECTION IN PASSIVE VIDEO
      12. RECOMMENDATION
      13. ISSUE AND CHALLENGES
      14. APPLICATION
      15. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ADDITIONAL READING
      19. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 126: Improving Knowledge Availability of Forensic Intelligence through Forensic Pattern Warehouse (FPW)
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND AND MAIN FOCUS
      3. RISKS WITH FORENSIC PATTERNS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  33. Section 20: Crisis Response and Management
    1. Chapter 127: Advanced Emergency Response Management in Smart Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HYBRID EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 128: Crisis Informatics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  34. Section 21: Curriculum Development and Instructional Design
    1. Chapter 129: Blended Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BLENDED LEARNING MODELS
      4. LESSONS LEARNED: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 130: Challenges in the Design and Development of a “Third Generation” E-Learning/Educational Platform
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CHALLENGES IN THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A “NEXT GENERATION” EDUCATIONAL PLATFORM
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 131: Students' Experiences of Emotional Connection with Pedagogical Agents
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STUDENT DISCLOSURE TO PEDAGOGICAL AGENTS ON SENSITIVE TOPICS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  35. Section 22: Customer Relationship Management
    1. Chapter 132: A Conceptual Framework for Determining Brand Attitude and Brand Equity through Text Analytics of Social Media Behavior
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BRAND PERSONALITY AND BIG FIVE PERSONALITY
      4. SOCIAL MEDIA BEHAVIORAL CONSTRUCT FOR BIG FIVE PERSONALITY
      5. A SUGGESTED FRAMEWORK FOR TEXT MINING OF SOCIAL MEDIA BEHAVIOR TO INDICATE BRAND PERSONALITY AND BRAND ATTITUDE
      6. FUNCTIONAL MOTIVATION FOR SOCIAL MEDIA BEHAVIOR
      7. NEED BASED MOTIVATION AND SOCIAL MEDIA BEHAVIOR
      8. BRAND EQUITY MEASUREMENT
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 133: Customer Relationship Management and Social Media Use
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EMPIRICAL STUDY
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 134: Social User Experience for Effective Mobile Advertising
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. UX OF MOBILE ADVERTISING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  36. Section 23: Cyber and Network Security
    1. Chapter 135: A Review Note of Piracy and Intellectual Property Theft in the Internet Era
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. VICTIMIZATION OF PIRACY AND IP THEFT AND PROTECTIVE ACTIONS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 136: Identification Protocols
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. DISCUSSIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 137: Internet Censorship in China
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 138: Managing Compliance with an Information Security Management Standard
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. INTEGRATED SECURITY FRAMEWORK (ISF)
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 139: Offline Verification for Handwritten Signatures Using Chain Code
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STRATEGY OF OUR OFFLINE SIGNATURE RECOGNITION SYSTEM
      4. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 140: Secure Routing Protocols for Wireless Adhoc Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ATTACKS AND COUNTERMEASURES IN MANET
      4. SECURE ADHOC ROUTING ATTACKS
      5. SECURE ROUTING PROTOCOLS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 141: Security Challenges in Cloud Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SECURITY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN CLOUD COMPUTING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 142: Security of Cloud Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 143: Software Piracy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DRINKING, DRIVING, SMOKING, AND FIDDLING EXPENSES
      4. SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE OF SOFTWARE PIRACY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 144: Using Total Quality Management to Mitigate Supply Chain Risk
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  37. Section 24: Cyber Crime and Digital Terrorism
    1. Chapter 145: Cyber Insider Threat in Virtual Organizations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. USER PROBLEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS
      4. USER’S TRUSTWORTHINESS IN VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION
      5. TRUSTWORTHINESS ATTRIBUTION OF USER’S SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 146: Financial Fraud, Technology Disruption, and Cyber-Governance
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 147: Understanding the Methods behind Cyber Terrorism
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  38. Section 25: Data Analysis and Statistics
    1. Chapter 148: A Bayesian Network Model for Probability Estimation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EVALUATION OF BAYES PROBABLITY ESTIMATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 149: Algorithms for Approximate Bayesian Computation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 150: Assessing Computational Thinking
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING CT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 151: Efficient Techniques to Design Low-Complexity Digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHODS BASED ON PERIODIC SUBFILTERS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 152: Financial News Analytics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 153: Multidimensional Data Visualization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 154: SEQUAL as a Framework for Understanding and Assessing Quality of Models and Modeling Languages
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY OF MODELS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  39. Section 26: Data Mining and Databases
    1. Chapter 155: A Comparative Review of Data Modeling in UML and ORM
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATA STRUCTURES
      4. CONSTRAINTS AND IDENTIFICATION SCHEMES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 156: An Overview for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CLASSIFIED OVERVIEW
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 157: Analysis of Large-Scale OMIC Data Using Self Organizing Maps
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE SOM PORTRAYING METHOD
      4. EXAMPLES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 158: Application of Data Mining Techniques for Breast Cancer Prognosis
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BREAST CANCER PROGNOSIS
      3. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. DATA MINING EXPERIMENTS ON BREAST CANCER DATA
      6. PROBLEMS WITH ASSOCIATION RULES MINING
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 159: Bicluster Analysis for Coherent Pattern Discovery
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MODEL OF BICLUSTER PATTERNS
      4. TECHNIQUES FOR BICLUSTER ANALYSIS
      5. APPLICATIONS OF BICLUSTER ANALYSIS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 160: Cluster Analysis Using Rough Clustering and K-Means Clustering
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EXTENSIONS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 161: Color Coding for Data Visualization
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 162: Consensus Clustering
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FINDING A CONSENSUS CLUSTERING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 163: Creating Moving Objects Representations for Spatiotemporal Databases
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING MOVING OBJECTS REPRESENTATIONS FROM OBSERVATIONS
      4. EXPERIMENTAL FRAMEWORK
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 164: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery in Databases
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATA MINING AND THE KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY IN DATABASES PROCESS
      4. DATA MINING TASKS, METHODS/ALGORITHMS, AND MODELS/PATTERNS
      5. KDD, SEMMA, AND CRISP-DM
      6. STANDARDS FOR DATA MINING
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 165: Data Mining of Chemogenomics Data Using Activity Landscape and Partial Least Squares
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MATERIAL AND METHODS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 166: Data Science and Distributed Intelligence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MINING BIG DATA
      4. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN DATA WAREHOUSING AND OLAP OVER BIG DATA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. WHAT IS NEXT?
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 167: Database Processing Benchmarks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ISSUES AND TRADEOFFS IN DATA PROCESSING BENCHMARKS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 168: Database Replication and Clustering for High Availability
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATABASE REPLICATION
      4. DATABASE CLUSTERING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 169: Discovery of Sequential Patterns Based on Sequential Interestingness and Constraint Conditions
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SEQUENTIAL DATA AND SEQUENTIAL PATTERN
      4. THE DISCOVERY OF FREQUENT SEQUENTIAL PATTERNS
      5. SEQUENTIAL INTERESTINGNESS
      6. TIME CONSTRAINT
      7. APPLICATION TASK
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 170: Efficient Algorithms for Clustering Data and Text Streams
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATA STREAM CLUSTERING
      4. EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS FOR TEXT STREAM CLUSTERING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 171: Expert Knowledge in Data Mining
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EXPERTISE IN DATA MINING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 172: Handling Imprecise Data in Geographic Databases
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MODELING IMPRECISE INFORMATION
      4. HANDLING IMPRECISE SPATIOTEMPORAL INFORMATION WITH F-PERCEPTORY
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. Chapter 173: Indexing and Compressing Text
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TEXT AND STRING DATA STRUCTURES
      4. SPACE EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATIONS
      5. COMPRESSED STRING STRUCTURES
      6. COMPRESSING INVERTED FILES
      7. DATA STRUCTURES IN SECONDARY MEMORY
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 174: Knowledge Discovery in Databases and Data Mining
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DATA MINING TASKS AND APPLICATION AREAS
      4. DATA MINING PROJECTS
      5. TOOLS FOR DATA MINING
      6. STANDARDS FOR DATA MINING
      7. TEXT MINING
      8. WEB MINING
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 175: Latent Dirichlet Allocation Approach for Analyzing Text Documents
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    22. Chapter 176: Measuring the Effects of Data Mining on Inference
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    23. Chapter 177: Metadata Crosswalks as a Way Towards Interoperability
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. REVIEW OF RELATED WORKS
      4. TYPES OF CROSSWALKS
      5. CROSSWALK PROCESS
      6. CHALLENGES IN MAPPING
      7. SOME INTERNATIONAL METADATA STANDARD MAPPINGS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    24. Chapter 178: Metadata Diversity in the Cultural Heritage Repositories
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND ABOUT THE METADATA SCHEMAS STUDIED
      3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DETAILS OF METADATA SCHEMAS USED AT VARIOUS DIGITAL CULTURAL REPOSITORIES
      6. ISSUES WITH NON HOMOGENEOUS (HETEROGENEOUS) METADATA SCHEMAS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    25. Chapter 179: Perspective for Database Preservation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    26. Chapter 180: Skyline Queries on Vertically Partitioned Tables
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SKYLINE QUERIES ON VPTS
      4. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
      5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    27. Chapter 181: State of the Art and Future Trends of Datacenter Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    28. Chapter 182: Study of Skyline Query Evaluation on Corona
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. RELATED WORK AND BACKGROUND
      3. CORONA EXTENSION
      4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    29. Chapter 183: Synopsis Data Structures for XML Databases
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF SYNOPSIS DATA STRUCTURES FOR XML DATABASES
      4. RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES ON SYNOPSIS DATA STRUCTURES FOR XML DATABASES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    30. Chapter 184: Temporal Databases
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TEMPORAL EXTENSIONS OF THE RELATIONAL MODEL AND OF SQL
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    31. Chapter 185: Text Mining
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BASIC COMPONENTS OF TEXT MINING
      4. APPLICATION AREAS OF TEXT MINING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    32. Chapter 186: The Evolution of UML
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE EVOLUTION OF UML
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    33. Chapter 187: The State of the Art in Web Mining
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. WEB MINING
      4. WEB MINING FRAMEWORKS
      5. WEB MINING: THE STATE OF THE ART
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  40. Section 27: Data Warehousing
    1. Chapter 188: An Objective Function for Evaluation of Fragmentation Schema in Data Warehouse
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EVALUATING A FRAGMENTATION SCHEMA
      4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 189: Record Linkage in Data Warehousing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 190: Searching Semantic Data Warehouses
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OPEN ISSUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  41. Section 28: Decision Support Systems
    1. Chapter 191: A Methodology of the Decision Support Systems Applied to Other Projects of Investigation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. APPLICATION OF THE IAMDSS TO PROJECTS THAT DO NOT CULMINATE IN A DSS
      4. ILLUSTRATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE IAMDSS IN WORKS OF INVESTIGATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 192: Real-Time Smart Navigation and the Genetic Approach to Vehicle Routing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ARCHITECTURES AND COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES
      5. THE GENETIC APPROACH TO REAL-TIME ROUTING
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 193: Shelter Selection with AHP Making Use of the Ideal Alternative
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  42. Section 29: Digital Communications and Linguistics
    1. Chapter 194: A Novel Computerized Paleographical Method for Determining the Evolution of Graphemes
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE PROBLEM OF DETERMINING THE GRAPHEME GENEAOLOGY
      4. THE ELEMENTS OF A GLYPH GENEAOLOGICAL MODEL
      5. THE NOVEL METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE GENEAOLOGIES OF THE GRAPHEMES
      6. RESULTS: THE CASE OF THE PHOENICIAN SEMK
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 195: An Effective Analysis Method of Discussions in Bulletin Board Sites
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ANALYSIS OF BULLETIN BOARD SITES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 196: Crisis Communications and Sharing Message Control
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 197: Digital Divide in Scholarly Communication
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 198: Information Society Discourse
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 199: Interface Technology Trends Implications for News and Information Services
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: TRADITIONAL MEDIA SERVICES
      3. DIGITAL INTERFACE ISSUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 200: Interpersonal Coordination in Computer-Mediated Communication
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTERPERSONAL COORDINATION IN COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 201: Locative Communication and the Increase of Relevance of the Place in Communication
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 202: Mobile Communications Privacy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LEGAL FRAMEWORK
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 203: The Digital World and the Elements in Digital Communication and FL Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE DIGITAL WORLD AND FL LEARNING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 204: The Evolutional Genesis of Blogs and the Integration of Communication Networks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SOCIAL WEB AND BLOGGING MOBILITY: THE FIFTH STAGE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 205: Trust in Computer Mediated Communication
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 206: Visualization as Communication with Graphic Representation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS IN VISUALIZATION
      4. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES APPLIED IN VISUALIZATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  43. Section 30: Digital Literacy
    1. Chapter 207: Digital Literacy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIGITAL LITERACY TRAINING
      4. CHALLENGES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 208: Digital Literacy Education for Digital Inclusion
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. DISCUSSION, SOLUTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 209: Social Aspects of Digital Literacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOCIAL ONLINE PRACTICES OF YOUTH
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  44. Section 31: Digital Media
    1. Chapter 210: A Hierarchical Organization of Home Video
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ATTENTION REGION DETECTION
      4. CAMERA MOTION BASED WEIGHTING STRATEGY
      5. SHOT ORGANIZATION STRATEGY
      6. SHOT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM
      7. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 211: Censorship of Digital Resources Worldwide
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 212: Digital Video Coding Principles from H.261 to H.265/HEVC
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HIGH EFFICIENCY VIDEO CODING (HEVC)
      4. VIDEO CODING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 213: Video Event Understanding
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EVENT DETECTION TECHNIQUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 214: Visual Information Analysis for Interactive TV Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. VISUAL INFORMATION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  45. Section 32: Distance Education
    1. Chapter 215: Components of a Distance Education Evaluation System
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 216: Constructivism as the Driver of 21st Century Online Distance Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 217: Instructional Support for Collaborative Activities in Distance Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COLLABORATION-SPECIFIC METHODS
      4. CONTENT-SPECIFIC METHODS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 218: Online Distance Education and Embedded Librarianship Integration
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BALL STATE UNIVERSITY: A CASE OF LIAISON LIBRARIANSHIP
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 219: The Evolution of Distance Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  46. Section 33: E-Books and Digital Publishing
    1. Chapter 220: Digital Textbook
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIGITAL TEXTBOOK FEATURES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 221: Ebooks, Ereaders, and Ebook Device Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAJOR RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN EBOOK DEVICE DESIGN
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 222: E-Textbooks as a Classroom Tool
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: PEDAGOGICAL MEANINGS OF E-TEXTBOOKS IN THE CLASSROOM
      3. POTENTIAL CONTROVERSIES IN THE ADAPTATION OF E-TEXTBOOKS IN THE CLASSROOM
      4. CONTEMPORARY EDUCATIONAL ISSUES AND E-TEXTBOOKS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 223: Evaluating the Perceived Fit Between E-Books and Academic Tasks
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      4. METHOD
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  47. Section 34: E-Business
    1. Chapter 224: E-Business Value Creation, Platforms, and Trends
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE ELECTRONIC VALUE CHAIN
      4. THE ELECTRONIC CREATION OF VALUE
      5. THE ELECTRONIC VALUE CREATION PROCESS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  48. Section 35: E-Commerce
    1. Chapter 225: Immersive Technologies for Interactive Store Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 226: Investigating the Importance of Website Color Contrast in E- and M-Commerce
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LIMITATIONS FACED BY ONLINE RETAILERS
      4. THE ROLE OF COLOR WITHIN THE INTERFACE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 227: Opportunities and Challenges for the Electronic Commerce Deployment in Developing Countries Discussed in a Case of Saudi Arabia
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. GLOBAL GROWTH OF E-COMMERCE
      4. E-COMMERCE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. E-COMMERCE SITUATION IN SAUDI ARABIA
      6. MOBILE E-COMMERCE
      7. IMMATURITY OF E-COMMERCE
      8. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT FACTOR
      9. TECHNICAL FACTORS
      10. CULTURAL AND ETHICAL FACTORS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 228: Social Commerce Using Social Network and E-Commerce
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 229: Trust Concerns of the Customers in E-Commerce Market Space by Indian Customers
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TRUST: ATTRIBUTES AND TYPES
      4. TRUST IN E-COMMERCE
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR E-VENDORS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  49. Section 36: Educational Administration and Leadership
    1. Chapter 230: Educational Policy Analysis Debates and New Learning Technologies in England
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      4. A “POLICY SPIRAL” MODEL ON NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 231: Learning Analytics
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TECHNIQUES USED THROUGH THE LIFE CYCLE OF ANALYTICS
      4. SCIENTIFIC FORUMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 232: Living in Exponential Times and the Personalization of Our Data Streams
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IT’S NOT INFORMATION OVERLOAD, IT’S FILTER FAILURE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 233: The Digitally Excluded Learner and Strategies for Success
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIGITALLY EXCLUDED LEARNER GROUPS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  50. Section 37: Educational Technologies
    1. Chapter 234: 3D Media Architecture Communication with SketchUp to Support Design for Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DISCUSSION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 235: Affect Awareness Support and Communication Technologies in Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH WORK
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 236: An Interoperable ICT Educational Application for TOEIC Preparatory Study
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A DEFINITION OF BLENDED LEARNING
      4. VALIDATION OF THE STUDY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 237: An Overview of Artificial Intelligence in Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 238: Analyzing and Predicting Student Academic Achievement Using Data Mining Techniques
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. OUR APPROACHES
      4. A SOFTWARE SYSTEM FOR PREDICTING ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 239: Classic Programmed Instruction Design and Theory
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LEARNING AND PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 240: Current Status and Future Directions of Blended Learning Models
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MODELS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 241: Emergent Forms of Technology-Influenced Scholarship
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FORMS OF EMERGENT TECHNOLOGY-INFLUENCED SCHOLARSHIP
      4. COMMONALITIES, DIFFERENCES, DIFFICULTIES, AND IMPLICATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 242: Exploring Perspectives on Social Media in Higher Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 243: Hypermedia and its Role in Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HYPERMEDIA IN LEARNING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 244: ICT Impact Assessment in Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. THE ICT IMPACT ASSESSMENT MODEL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 245: Informing the Design of Future Literacy Technologies with Theories of Cognitive Science
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DESIGN OF FUTURE LITERACY TECHNOLOGIES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 246: I-Schools and the Present Worldwide Trend and the Indian Scenario
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND AND ORIGIN OF I-SCHOOLS
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. FEATURES OF I-SCHOOLS
      5. I-SCHOOLS AND I-PROGRAMMES: EXISTING AND POSIBILITIES
      6. I-SCHOOLS IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE POTENTIALS
      7. WAY TO BUILD I-SCHOOLS IN INDIA
      8. I-SCHOOLS AND ENGINEERING INFRASTRUCTURE IN INDIA
      9. CHALLENGES
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 247: Learning Management Technology and Preservice Teachers
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 248: Learning Processes during Online Discussions
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LEARNING PROCESSES DURING ONLINE DISCUSSIONS
      4. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHERS AND FORUM DESIGNERS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 249: Literacy Learning and Assessment for the Digital Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONTEMPORARY LITERACY PEDAGOGY: LINKING ENGAGEMENT AND MOTIVATION WITH MULTIMODAL MEDIA ASSIGNMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 250: Pedagogical Agents in 3D Learning Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PEDAGOGICAL AGENTS IN 3D LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 251: Quantum Information Science and a Possible Domain for Future Information School
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND AND EXISTING LITERATURE
      3. OBJECTIVE AND HYPOTHESIS
      4. QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE (QIS) AS A DOMAIN AND GROWING INTERDISCIPLINARY NATURE
      5. THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF QIS
      6. QIS: THE NEW PARADIGM OF INFORMATION SCIENCE
      7. INFORMATION SCHOOL AND POSSIBILITIES IN QIS AND QUANTUM COMPUTING
      8. IMPROVING RAPID AND QUICK INFORMATION SYSTEM THROUGH QIS
      9. QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE (QIS): EMERGING ATTRIBUTES AND FEATURES
      10. QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ITS SUBFIELDS
      11. FINDINGS
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. Chapter 252: Serious Games and the Technology of Engaging Information
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. UNDERSTANDING SERIOUS GAMES THROUGH UNDERSTANDING GAMES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    20. Chapter 253: Teaching in Visual Programming Environments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TEACHING WITH VISUAL PROGRAMMING
      4. EMPIRICAL EVALUATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    21. Chapter 254: Technology Integration in a Southern Inner-City School
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    22. Chapter 255: Telementoring in the P-16+ Environment
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    23. Chapter 256: The QRcode Format as a Tool for Inclusive, Personalised, and Interdisciplinary Learning Experiences
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE QRCODE FORMAT
      4. CHARACTERISTICS AND OUTCOMES OF THE RESEARCH EXPERIENCES WITH THE FORMAT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    24. Chapter 257: The Use of Geo-Spatial Technology in Handheld Devices for Teaching Geography in a Formal School Context
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND PROBLEMS WITH USING GEO-SPATIAL TECHNIQUES WITH HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    25. Chapter 258: Towards Open-Source Virtual Worlds in Interdisciplinary Studies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTERDISCIPLINARY OPEN-SOURCE VIRTUAL WORLDS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    26. Chapter 259: Use of Online Social Networking and Academic Performance of Students
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. STUDENTS’ PRACTICES OF OSN AND BEHAVIOR
      4. USE OF ONLINE SOCIAL NETWORKING
      5. ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
      6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF OSN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  51. Section 38: Electrical Engineering
    1. Chapter 260: A Graphical Unit Interface to Generate Light Distribution Curves
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. DESIGN OF THE MECHANICAL SUPPORT
      5. PROGRAMMING OF THE MOVEMENTS CONTROL BLOCK
      6. GUI DEVELOPMENT
      7. RESULTS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 261: Byzantine Fault Tolerant Monitoring and Control for Electric Power Grid
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BYZANTINE FAULT TOLERANT MONITORING AND CONTROL MECHANISMS
      4. EXPERIMENTAL ASSESSMENT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 262: Outage Analysis and Maintenance Strategies in Hydroelectric Production
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  52. Section 39: Electronic Government
    1. Chapter 263: An Overview of E-Government 3.0 Implementation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INTEGRATING E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 264: Citizens' Engagement Using Communication Technologies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: E-PARTICIPATION RESEARCH
      3. E-PARTICIPATION TOOLS: TOWARDS WEB 2.0 INCORPORATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 265: E-Government Development at the Local Level in Australia Using a Framework for Connected E-Government
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. A FRAMEWORK FOR CONNECTED E-GOVERNMENT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 266: Exploring the M-Government
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SMART TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE M-GOVERNMENT
      5. USER ACCEPTANCE TO LEVERAGE MOBILE TECHNOLOGY IN M-GOVERNMENT
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 267: Federal Government Application of the Cloud Computing Application Integration Model
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CLOUD COMPUTING: A MODEL FOR GOVERNMENT IT ACQUISITION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 268: IT Governance
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. IT GOVERNANCE IN DETAIL
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 269: Measuring Democracy on Web Interface Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MEASURING DEMOCRACY ON WEB INTERFACE DESIGN
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX A
    8. Chapter 270: Provision of Governmental Services through Mobile Phones and Tablets and Threats to Users' Security and Privacy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SECURITY AND PRIVACY CONCERNS OVER THE CONCEPT OF MOBILE GOVERNMENT
      4. SECURITY
      5. PRIVACY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 271: Re-Engaging the Public through E-Consultation in the Government 2.0 Landscape
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ENGAGING THE PUBLIC: YOUNG CITIZENS, OLD PROBLEMS
      4. E-CONSULTATION: TWO-WAY GOVERNANCE IN THE DIGITAL AGE
      5. CONTINUUMS OF ELECTRONIC CONSULTATION: A CLASSIFICATION
      6. PARTICIPATION IN THE DIGITAL AGE: NEW OPPORTUNITIES, OLD PROBLEMS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 272: Technology as Enabler of Institutional Reform in Government
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DIFFUSION OF “E-GOVERNMENT”: SOME DETERMINANTS
      4. TRANSFORMATION AND REDESIGN OF INFORMATION RELATIONSHIPS: RESULTS AND ISSUES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 273: The Need, Requirements, and Vision for E-Societal Management
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE VHL MODEL OF THE SES
      4. SKETCH OF THE CONTENT OF A SES SYSTEM ENGINEERING THEORY
      5. A VHL POSSIBLE MODEL OF E-SM INFORMATION SYSTEM (ESMIS)
      6. A SHORT COMMENT ON COST-BENEFIT ASSESSMENTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
      14. APPENDIX 1
      15. APPENDIX 2
  53. Section 40: Electronic Services
    1. Chapter 274: A Unified Platform for the Dynamic Evolution of Context-Aware Highly Agile Services
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. THE PROPOSED SERVICE DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION APPROACH
      4. 4. THE REALISATION: APTO PLATFORM
      5. 5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. 6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 275: An Exploratory Study of Metrics Used to Measure the Impacts of Social Media Utilization on Business Performance
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RESEARCH METHODS
      4. ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL MEDIA SUCCESS CASES
      5. ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL MEDIA METRICS FROM SUCCESSFUL CASES
      6. ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL MEDIA METRICS FROM FAILED CASES
      7. SYNTHESIS OF THE ANALYSIS PERFORMED
      8. SOCIAL MEDIA IMPACT METRICS FROM THE BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 276: Enhancing Service Integrity of Byzantine Fault Tolerant Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RECONCILATION OF SECURITY AND REPLICATION REQUIREMENTS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 277: QoS Architectures for the IP Network
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE MULTI-PROTOCOL LABEL SWITCHING (MPLS) ARCHITECTURE
      4. THE DIFFERENTIATED SERVICE (DIFFSERV) ARCHITECTURE
      5. DIFFSERV WITH MPLS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  54. Section 41: Engineering Science
    1. Chapter 278: Compounds Based on dDped Bi2O3 as New Ecologically Friendly Yellow-Orange Shade Pigments
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INVESTIGATION OF BI2(1-X)RE2XO3 COMPOUNDS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 279: Dealing with Completeness in Requirements Engineering
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS
      4. CLOSED POPULATIONS ESTIMATION
      5. CAPTURING DOMAIN INFORMATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  55. Section 42: Enterprise Resource Planning
    1. Chapter 280: Reflexivity in the Resistance to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Innovation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  56. Section 43: Entrepreneurship
    1. Chapter 281: Crowdsourcing Business Model in the Context of Changing Consumer Society
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CROWDSOURCING BUSINESS MODEL
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 282: E-Entrepreneurship
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE SUCCESS FACTORS
      4. THE PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 283: Technology, Social Innovation, and Social Entrepreneurship in the Quadruple Helix
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE QUADRUPLE HELIX INNOVATION MODEL
      4. SOCIAL INNOVATION
      5. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      6. SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES
      7. OPEN TECHNOLOGIES
      8. CREATING INNOVATION NETWORKS
      9. THE ORGANIC RISE OF HACKSPACES
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  57. Section 44: Environmental Science and Agriculture
    1. Chapter 284: Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water Using Carbon Nanotubes
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 285: Dendrochronology and Climate Change
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 286: Ecosystem Wetlands Restoration Approach for Sustainable Development Planning
      1. 1. INTRODUCTION
      2. 2. BACKGROUND
      3. 3. THE RESTORATION PROJECT
      4. 4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. 5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 287: Environmental Informatics for Sustainable Development
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS
      4. FUTURE RESEACH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 288: Environmental Scanning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT RESEARCH METHODS AND TOOLS
      5. SCANNING THE LIBRARIES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 289: Towards Low-Cost Energy Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CHALLENGE OF NILM
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
  58. Section 45: Ethics and Social Responsibility
    1. Chapter 290: Cyber Behavior
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 291: E-Human Rights
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HUMAN RIGHTS AND ICT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 292: Ethical Computing
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. COMPUTER ETHICS
      4. ETHICAL COMPUTING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 293: Ethics in Health Informatics and Information Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ORIGINS OF ETHICS
      4. WHY ARE THE CODES NOT WORKING?
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 294: Laws Related to Web and Digital Application Accessibility
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LAWS, REGULATIONS, STANDARDS, AND GUIDELINES
      4. ISSUES RELATED TO WEB AND DIGITAL APPLICATION ACCESSIBILITY
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  59. Section 46: Gaming
    1. Chapter 295: Can Video Games Benefit the Cognitive Abilities of the Elderly Population?
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 296: Ecology of Games as a Framework for Analysing E-Government Project Implementation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: UNDERSTANDING ACTOR BEHAVIOUR
      3. ASSESSING PROJECT OUTCOME: THE ECOLOGY OF GAMES FRAMEWORK
      4. ECOLOGY OF GAMES: THE KEY METAPHOR
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 297: Gamification
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      4. CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 298: Gamification Design Elements in Business Education Simulations
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. SIMULATION DESIGN TO SUPPORT EDUCATION OUTCOMES
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 299: Increasing the Trustworthiness of Online Gaming Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. TECHNIQUES FOR ENHANCING THE TRUSTWORTHINESS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 300: Video Game Genres
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  60. Section 47: Gender and IT
    1. Chapter 301: Critical Study of Gender and Teacher-Designed Interactive Educational Websites
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 302: Gender and Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 303: Gender, Body, and Computing Technologies in the Science-Fiction Film
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CYBERBODIES IN CONTEMPORARY SCI-FI FILM
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
  61. Section 48: Geographic Information Systems
    1. Chapter 304: Critical Information Literacy in the Geographic and Information Sciences
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 305: Developments of the Digital World of Remote Sensing and GIS, Their Comparison to, and the Importance of the Human Side of Information Reference Services
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 306: Geographic Information Systems (G.I.S.) for the Analysis of Historical Small Towns
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (G.I.S.) FOR HISTORICAL SMALL TOWNS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 307: Geoinformatics in Eco-Climatic Studies
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. APPLICATION OF GEOINFORMATICS
      4. GEOINFORMATICS IN LANDUSE/LANDCOVER CHANGE ASSESSMENT: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
      5. GEOINFORMATICS IN CLIMATE CHANGE STUDIES: ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, AND LIMITATIONS
      6. GEOINFORMATICS IN AGRO-CLIMATOLOGY
      7. GEOINFORMATICS TOOLS
      8. CHALLENGES OF GEOINFORMATICS APPLICATION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 308: GIS and Remote Sensing in Environmental Risk Assessment and Management
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CURRENT STATE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 309: Integration Strategies for GIS and Optimization Tools
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DESCRIPTION OF THE CAPACITATED VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEM
      4. A GIS-O DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR THE CVRP
      5. AN EXAMPLE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 310: Predictive Expert Models for Mineral Potential Mapping
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PREDICTIVE MINERAL POTENTIAL MODELS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 311: Representation of Geographic Phenomena
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. KR APPROACHES TO GEOGRAPHIC EVENTS AND PROCESSES
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 312: Urban Information Modeling Combining BIM and GIS
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  62. Section 49: Global Information Technology
    1. Chapter 313: A Comparison of Appearance-Based Descriptors in a Visual SLAM Approach
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. APPEARANCE-BASED SLAM
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 314: Internetization and the New Global Economy of the 21st Century
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 315: The Challenges and Opportunities of the Software Industry in Egypt
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
  63. Section 50: Government and Law
    1. Chapter 316: Analysing E-Government Project Success and Failure Using the Design-Actuality Gap Model
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE DESIGN-ACTUALITY GAP MODEL: ANALYSING E-GOVERNMENT PROJECT SUCCESS AND FAILURE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 317: De Facto Ethics Principles and Applications
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CATEGORIZATION OF GEORG HENRIK VON WRIGHT
      4. HABERMAS AND COMMUNICATIVE GOODNESS
      5. INSTRUMENTAL GOODNESS
      6. HABERMAS VS. VON WRIGHT
      7. DE FACTO ETHICS
      8. SELF-REGULATION AS A HOBBESIAN ENTERPRISE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 318: Government as a Service in Communities
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. GOVERNMENT AS A FULL COMMUNITY CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICE
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 319: Linkage of De-Identified Records in Accordance to the European Legislation
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. METHODS
      4. APPLICATION IN MEDICINE, EDUCATION, OR SOCIAL FIELDS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 320: RTI and OGD Synergy for Society, Economy, and Democracy
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. RIGHT TO INFORMATION MOVEMENT
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 321: The Single Patent for Portuguese or Spanish Language Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND