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Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 2

Book Description

Want to know how to use an electronic component? This second book of a three-volume set includes key information on electronics parts for your projects--complete with photographs, schematics, and diagrams. You'll learn what each one does, how it works, why it's useful, and what variants exist. Volume 2 covers signal processing, including LEDs, LCDs, audio, thyristors, digital logic, and amplification.

Table of Contents

  1. Dedication
  2. How to Use This Book
    1. Volume Contents
      1. Volume 1
      2. Volume 2
      3. Volume 3
    2. Organization
      1. Reference versus Tutorial
      2. Theory and Practice
      3. Entries
      4. Subject Paths
      5. Inclusions and Exclusions
      6. Typographical Conventions
      7. Visual Conventions
      8. Photographic Backgrounds
      9. Component Availability
      10. Issues and Errata
    3. Safari® Books Online
    4. How to Contact Us
    5. Acknowledgments
  3. 1. SCR
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Switching Behavior
    3. Internal Configuration
      1. Breakdown and Breakover Voltage
      2. SCR Concept Demo
      3. AC Current Applications
    4. Variants
    5. Values
      1. Commonly Used Abbreviations
    6. How to Use It
      1. Phase Control
      2. Overvoltage Protection
    7. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat
      2. Unexpected Triggering Caused by Voltage
      3. Confusion of AC and DC Ratings
      4. Maximum Current versus Conduction Angle
      5. Confusing Symbols
  4. 2. diac
    1. What It Does
      1. Symbol Variants
    2. How It Works
      1. Switching AC
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat
      2. Low-Temperature Effects
      3. Manufacturing Tolerances
  5. 3. triac
    1. What It Does
      1. Symbol Variants
    2. How It Works
      1. Quadrants
      2. Threshold, Latching, and Holding Current
      3. Triac Testing
      4. Breakover Voltage
      5. Switching AC
      6. Triac Triggered by a Diac
      7. Other Triac Drivers
      8. Charge Storage
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Unexpected Triggering Caused by Heat
      2. Low-Temperature Effects
      3. Wrong Type of Load
      4. Wrongly Identified Terminals
      5. Failure to Switch Off
  6. 4. solid-state relay
    1. What It Does
      1. Advantages
      2. Disadvantages
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Instantaneous versus Zero Crossing
      2. NC and NO Modes
      3. Packaging
      4. Solid-State Analog Switch
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Overheating Caused by Overloading
      2. Overheating Caused by Bad Terminal Contact
      3. Overheating Caused by Changing Duty Cycle
      4. Overheating Caused by Component Crowding
      5. Overheating in Dual Packaging
      6. Reverse-Voltage Burnout
      7. Low Voltage Output Current May Not Work
      8. Inability to Measure AC Output
      9. Relay Turns On but Won’t Turn Off
      10. Relays in Parallel Won’t Work
      11. Output Device Doesn’t Run at Full Power
      12. Solid-State Relays and Safety Disconnects
  7. 5. optocoupler
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Internal Sensors
      2. Basic Optocoupler Types
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Age
      2. LED Burnout
      3. Transistor Burnout
  8. 6. comparator
    1. What It Does
      1. Hysteresis
    2. How It Works
      1. Differences from an Op-Amp
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. AND gate
      2. Bistable Multivibrator
      3. Relaxation Oscillator
      4. Level Shifter
      5. Window Comparator
      6. Other Applications
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Oscillating Output
      2. Confused Inputs
      3. Wrong Chip Type
      4. Omitted Pullup Resistor
      5. CMOS Issues
      6. Erratic Output
      7. Swapped Voltages
      8. Heat-Dependent Hysteresis
  9. 7. op-amp
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Dual Inputs
      2. Negative Feedback
      3. Op-Amps and Comparators
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. Controlling the Gain
      2. Calculating Amplification
      3. Unintentional DC Voltage Amplification
      4. Low-Pass Filter
      5. High-Pass Filter
      6. Relaxation Oscillator
      7. Single Power Source
      8. Offset Null Adjustment
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Power Supply Problems
      2. Bad Connection of Unused Sections
      3. Oscillating Output
      4. Confused Inputs
  10. 8. digital potentiometer
    1. What It Does
      1. Advantages
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Volatile and Nonvolatile Memory
      2. Taper
      3. Data Transfer
      4. SPI
      5. I2C Protocol
      6. Up/Down Protocol
      7. Other Control Systems
      8. Connections and Modes
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. Achieving Higher Resolution
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Noise and Bad Inputs
      2. Wrong Chip
      3. Controller and Chip Out of Sync
      4. Nonlinear Effects
      5. Data Transfer Too Fast
  11. 9. timer
    1. What It Does
      1. Monostable Mode
      2. Astable Mode
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. The 555 Timer
      2. 555 Monostable Operation
      3. 555 Astable Operation
      4. 556 Timer
      5. 558 Timer
      6. CMOS 555 Timer
      7. 5555 Timer
      8. 7555 Timer
      9. 7556 Timer
      10. 4047B Timer
      11. Dual Monostable Timers
    4. Values
      1. 555 Timer Values
      2. Time Calculation in Monostable Mode
      3. Time Calculation in Astable Mode
      4. Dual Monostable Timers
    5. How to Use It
      1. 555 Monostable Mode
      2. 555 Astable Mode
      3. Separate Control of High and Low Output Times
      4. 555 Fifty Percent Astable Duty Cycle: 1
      5. 555 Fifty Percent Astable Duty Cycle: 2
      6. Use of the 555 Control Pin
      7. 555 Flip-Flop Emulation
      8. 555 Hysteresis
      9. 555 and Coupling Capacitors
      10. 555 Loudspeaker Connection
      11. Burst Mode
      12. “You Lose” Game Sound
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Dead Timer
      2. CMOS Confused with Bipolar
      3. The Pulse that Never Ends
      4. Erratic Chip Behavior
      5. Interference with Other Components
      6. Erratic Behavior of Output Devices
      7. Fatal Damage Caused by Inductive Loads
  12. 10. logic gate
    1. What It Does
      1. Origins
    2. How It Works
      1. Inversion
      2. Single-Input Gates
      3. Gates with More than Two Inputs
      4. Boolean Notation
      5. Arithmetical Operations
      6. Other Operations
    3. Variants
      1. Part Numbers
      2. Families
      3. Family Interoperability
      4. Gates per Chip
      5. Two Inputs, Single Gate
      6. Three Inputs, Single Gate
      7. Single Gate, Selectable Function
      8. Two Inputs, Dual Gate
      9. Original 74xx 14-Pin Format
      10. Quad Two-Input 74xx Pinouts
      11. Triple Three-Input 74xx Pinouts
      12. Dual Four-Input 74xx Pinouts
      13. Single Eight-Input 74xx Pinouts
      14. 74xx Inverters
      15. Additional Variations
      16. Pinouts in the Original 4000 Series
      17. 4000 Series Inverters
    4. How to Use It
      1. Which Family
      2. Applications
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Static
      2. Floating Pins
      3. Family Incompatibilities
      4. Overloaded Outputs
      5. Output Pulled Down
      6. Incorrect Polarity and Voltages
      7. Bent Pins
      8. Unclean Input
      9. Analog Input
  13. 11. flip-flop
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. NAND-Based SR Flip-Flop
      2. NOR-Based SR Flip-Flop
      3. Forbidden States
      4. The JK Flip-Flop
      5. Master-Slave Flip-Flop
      6. D-Type Flip-Flops
      7. Summary
    3. Variants
      1. Packaging
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Ambiguous Documentation
      2. Faulty Triggering
      3. Metastability
      4. Other Issues
  14. 12. shift register
    1. What It Does
      1. Schematic Representation
    2. How It Works
      1. Abbreviations and Acronyms
      2. Parallel Outputs and Inputs
    3. Variants
      1. Serial In, Serial Out
      2. Serial In, Parallel Out
      3. Parallel In, Serial Out
      4. Parallel In, Parallel Out
      5. Universal
    4. Values
      1. Power Considerations
      2. Three-State Output
    5. How to Use It
      1. Dual Inputs
      2. Preloading the Shift Register
      3. Polling a Keyboard
      4. Arithmetical Operations
      5. Buffering
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Confusing Classification
      2. Inadequate Setup Time
      3. Unconnected Input
      4. Output Enable Issues
      5. Floating Output Bus
  15. 13. counter
    1. What It Does
      1. Schematic Representation
    2. How It Works
      1. Modulus and Modulo
      2. Pin Identifiers
    3. Variants
      1. Ripple versus Synchronous
      2. Ring, Binary, and BCD
      3. Clock Sources
      4. Rising Edge and Falling Edge
      5. Multiple Stages
      6. Single and Dual
      7. High-State, Low-State, and Three-State
      8. Descending Output
      9. Programmable Counters
      10. Examples
    4. Values
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Lock-Out
      2. Asynchronous Artifacts
      3. Noise
  16. 14. encoder
    1. What It Does
      1. Schematic Symbol
      2. Similar Devices
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. Cascaded Encoders
    6. What Can Go Wrong
  17. 15. decoder
    1. What it Does
      1. Input Devices
      2. LED Driver
      3. Schematic Symbol
      4. Similar Devices
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Glitches
      2. Unhelpful Classification
      3. Active-Low and Active-High
  18. 16. multiplexer
    1. What It Does
      1. Differential Multiplexer
      2. Similar Devices
    2. How It Works
      1. Schematic Symbol
      2. Pin Identifiers
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. Other Application Notes
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Pullup Resistors
      2. Break Before Make
      3. Signal Distortion
      4. Limits of CMOS Switching
      5. Transients
  19. 17. LCD
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Active and Passive Types
      2. Crystal Types
      3. Seven-Segment Displays
      4. Additional Segments
      5. Dot-Matrix Displays
      6. Color
      7. Backlighting Options
      8. Zero-Power Displays
    4. How to Use It
      1. Numeric Display Modules
      2. Alphanumeric Display Module
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Temperature Sensitivity
      2. Excessive Multiplexing
      3. DC Damage
      4. Bad Communications Protocol
      5. Wiring Errors
  20. 18. incandescent lamp
    1. What It Does
    2. History
    3. How It Works
      1. Spectrum
      2. Non-Incandescent Sources
      3. Power Consumption
    4. Variants
      1. Miniature Lamps
      2. Panel-Mount Indicator Lamps
      3. Halogen or Quartz-Halogen
      4. Oven Lamps
      5. Base Variants
    5. Values
      1. Power
      2. Illuminance
      3. Intensity
      4. MSCP
      5. Efficacy
      6. Efficiency
    6. How to Use It
      1. Relative Advantages
      2. Derating
    7. What Can Go Wrong
      1. High Temperature Environment
      2. Fire Risk
      3. Current Inrush
      4. Replacement Problems
  21. 19. neon bulb
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Construction
      2. Ionization
      3. Negative Resistance
    3. How to Use It
      1. Limited Light Output
      2. Efficiency
      3. Ruggedness
      4. Power-Supply Testing
      5. Life Expectancy
    4. Variants
      1. Nixie Tubes
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. False Indication
      2. Failure in a Dark Environment
      3. Premature Failure with DC
      4. Premature Failure through Voltage Fluctuations
      5. Replacement
  22. 20. fluorescent light
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Ballast and Starter
      2. Flicker
    3. Variants
      1. CCFLs
      2. Sizes
      3. Comparisons
    4. Values
      1. Brightness
      2. Spectrum
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Unreliable Starting
      2. Terminal Flicker
      3. Cannot Dim
      4. Burned Out Electrodes
      5. Ultraviolet Hazard
  23. 21. laser
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Laser Diode
      2. Coherent Light
    3. Variants
      1. CO2 Lasers
      2. Fiber Lasers
      3. Crystal Lasers
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. Common Applications
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Risk of Injury
      2. Inadequate Heat Sink
      3. Uncontrolled Power Supply
      4. Polarity
  24. 22. LED indicator
    1. What It Does
      1. Schematic Symbols
      2. Common Usage
    2. How It Works
      1. Multicolor LEDs and Color Mixing
    3. Variants
      1. Size and Shape
      2. Intensity
      3. Efficacy
      4. Diffusion
      5. Wavelength and Color Temperature
      6. Internal Resistor
      7. Multicolored
      8. Infrared
      9. Ultraviolet
    4. Values
      1. Forward Current
      2. Low-Current LEDs
      3. Forward Voltage
      4. Color Rendering Index
      5. Life Expectancy
      6. Light Output and Heat
      7. View Angle
    5. How to Use It
      1. Polarity
      2. Series Resistor Value
      3. LEDs in Parallel
      4. Multiple Series LEDs
      5. Comparisons with Other Light Emitters
      6. Other Applications
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Excessive Forward Voltage
      2. Excessive Current and Heat
      3. Storage Issues
      4. Polarity
      5. Internal Resistors
  25. 23. LED area lighting
    1. What It Does
      1. Trends in Cost and Efficiency
      2. Schematic Symbol
    2. How It Works
      1. Visible Differences
      2. Side-by-Side Comparison
      3. Heat Dissipation
      4. Efficacy
      5. Dimming
      6. Ultraviolet Output
      7. Color Variation
    3. Variants
      1. Comparisons
    4. Values
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Wrong Voltage
      2. Overheating
      3. Fluorescent Ballast Issues
      4. Misleading Color Representation
  26. 24. LED display
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. LCD comparisons
      2. Seven-Segment Displays
      3. Multiple Numerals
      4. Additional Segments
      5. Dot-Matrix Displays
      6. Pixel Arrays
      7. Multiple Bar Display
      8. Single Light Bar
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
      1. Seven-Segment Basics
      2. Driver Chips and Multiplexing
      3. Sixteen-Segment Driver Chip
      4. Dot-Matrix LED Display Modules
      5. Pixel Arrays
      6. Multiple Bar Display Driver
      7. One-Digit Hexadecimal Dot Matrix
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Common Anode versus Common Cathode
      2. Incorrect Series Resistance
      3. Multiplexing Issues
  27. 25. vacuum-fluorescent display
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Anode, Cathode, and Grid
    3. How to Use It
      1. Modern Application
    4. Variants
      1. Color
      2. Character Sets and Pictorial Design
      3. Comparisons
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Fading
  28. 26. electroluminescence
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Phosphors
      2. Derivation
    3. Variants
      1. Panels
      2. Flexible Ribbons
      3. Rope Light
      4. OLED
  29. 27. transducer
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Electromagnetic
      2. Piezoelectric
      3. Ultrasonic Transducer
      4. Formats
    4. Values
      1. Frequency Range
      2. Sound Pressure
      3. Weighted Sound Values
      4. Unweighted Values
      5. Measurement Location
      6. Limitations
      7. Voltage
      8. Current
    5. How to Use It
      1. Appropriate Sound Intensity
      2. Volume Control
      3. AC Supply
      4. Self-Drive Transducer Circuit
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Overvoltage
      2. Leakage
      3. Component Mounting Problems
      4. Moisture
      5. Transducer-Indicator Confusion
      6. Connection with a Microcontroller
  30. 28. audio indicator
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Audio Frequency
      2. History
    3. Variants
      1. Sound Patterns
      2. Formats
    4. Values
      1. Voltage
      2. Current
      3. Frequency
      4. Duty Cycle
    5. How to Use It
      1. Appropriate Sound Intensity
      2. Volume Control
      3. Wiring
    6. What Can Go Wrong
  31. 29. headphone
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Audio Basics
    3. Variants
      1. Moving Coil
      2. Other Types
      3. Mechanical Design
    4. Values
      1. Intensity
      2. Frequency Response
      3. Distortion
      4. Impedance
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Overdriving
      2. Hearing Damage
      3. Mismatched Impedance
      4. Incorrect Wiring
  32. 30. speaker
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Construction
      2. Multiple Drivers
      3. Venting
      4. Resonance
      5. Miniature Speakers
    3. Variants
      1. Electrostatic Speaker
      2. Powered Speakers
      3. Wireless Speakers
      4. Innovative Designs
    4. Values
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Damage
      2. Magnetic Field
      3. Vibration
  33. Index
  34. Colophon
  35. Copyright