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Encyclopedia of Decision Making and Decision Support Technologies

Book Description

As effective organizational decision making is a major factor in a company's success, a coherent, comprehensive account of current available research on the core concepts of the decision support agenda, is in high demand by academians and professionals alike.

The Encyclopedia of Decision Making and Decision Support Technologies presents a critical mass of research on the most up-to-date research on human and computer support of managerial decision making, including discussion on support of operational, tactical, and strategic decisions, human vs. computer system support structure, individual and group decision making, and multi-criteria decision making.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Contributors
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. REFERENCES
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. About the Editors
  8. 1. Activity-Based Costing System for a Small Manufacturing Company: A Case Study
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Origin of the ABC
      2. Definition of Activity-Based Costing
      3. ABC as a Springboard for Making Long-Term Decisions
    3. GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE ABC SYSTEM FOR SMES
    4. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING SYSTEM FOR A SMALL MANUFACTURING COMPANY
      1. The Aim and Steps of the ABC Implementation Project
      2. Structure of the Elaborated ABC Model
      3. Cost Calculation
      4. Implementing the ABC Model in OROS Modeler Environment
      5. Outcomes of Profitability Analysis of Products and Clients
      6. Decisions Made Based on the ABC Information
    5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS1
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTE
  9. 2. Analysis and Intuition in Strategic Decision Making: The Case of California
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RATIONAL/INTUITIVE ORIENTATION
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  10. 3. The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Structuring, Measurement, and Synthesis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Benefits of AHP
      2. Shortcomings of AHP
        1. Rank Reversal
        2. Subjectivity and Time Consumption
      3. A Specific Example of Application of AHP
      4. Examples across Different Areas and Organizations
        1. NASA: Optimal Project Selection
        2. AHP in Health Care
        3. Other Industries: General Motors and Xerox Corporation
        4. Farm-Level Decisions
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  11. 4. An Attention-Based View on DSS
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ON TRIAL: DSS BASED ON THE "DECISION-MAKING AS CHOICE" VIEW
    3. AN ATTENTION-BASED VIEW OF THE FIRM
    4. DESIGNING AND MANAGING DSS BASED ON AN ATTENTION-BASED VIEW OF THE FIRM
      1. Delivering Decision Support in the Internet Age
      2. Designing DS-Ps Based on an Attention-Based View of the firm
    5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  12. 5. Balanced Scorecard Concepts, Technology, and Applications
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. BALANCED SCORECARD
      1. General Concepts
      2. Design and Transfer
      3. Technology
      4. Applications
      5. BSC in a Decision Support System
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  13. 6. A Bi-Criteria DSS Dedicated to Location Problems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE MODEL
    4. THE INTERACTIVE APPROACH
    5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  14. 7. Business Process Management Systems for Supporting Individual and Group Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. BPM AND RELATED TERMINOLOGY
    4. WORKFLOW CHARACTERIZATION
      1. Supporting Decision Making Through Coordination and Control
      2. Workflow Management for Coordination and Control of Tasks
      3. Individual Decision Making
      4. Group Decision Making
      5. Managerial Decision Support
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  15. 8. Challenges for Decision Support in Urban Disaster Scenarios
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. CHARACTERIZING EXTREME EVENTS
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Organizational Decision Making
      2. Local Decision Making (Improvisation)
    4. TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DECISION SUPPORT
      1. Communication Support
      2. Information Support
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  16. 9. Classification and Ranking Belief Simplex
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. CaRBS ANALYSES OF EXAMPLE DATA SET
      1. CaRBS Analysis With Objective Function OB1
      2. CaRBS Analysis with Objective Function OB2
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  17. 10. Computer Aided Facility Management (CAFM) as a New Branch of Decision Making Support Technologies in the Field of Facility Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FACILITY MANAGEMENT
      1. Computer Aided Facility Management
      2. CAFM as a Management Support System
      3. The Relevance of CAFM as a Decision Support System
      4. CAFM as a Decision Support System
      5. Design System Good Practice
      6. Implementation
      7. Operation
    4. FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES AND TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  18. 11. Context in Decision Support Systems Development
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. VALUE-BASED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  19. 12. Contextualization in Decision Making and Decision Support
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  20. 13. Cooperative Decision Support Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. COOPERATIVE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  21. 14. Dashboards for Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DASHBOARDS AS DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR MANAGEMENT
      1. Characteristics of Dashboards
        1. Visualization
        2. Selecting Relevant Data Areas (KPI)
        3. Monitoring and Interaction
      2. Application Categories
      3. System Development and Design Aspects
      4. Risks and Problems
      5. Examples
    3. FURTHER PERSPECTIVES
    4. SUMMARY
    5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  22. 15. Data Warehousing for Decision Support
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Basic Concept of a Data Warehouse
      2. Data Warehouse Elements
      3. Some Management Issues
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Choosing Data Warehouse Methodology
      2. Managing Data Warehouse Operational Cycle
      3. Data Warehousing Security
      4. Business-Driven Data Warehousing Initiative
      5. Senior-Management Sponsorship and Commitment
      6. Funding Commitment
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  23. 16. Debiasing Decision Makers Through Knowledge Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND DECISION SUPPORT
      1. Automating
      2. Informating
    3. EMPIRICAL STUDY
      1. Study Objectives
      2. Research Method
        1. Experimental Task
        2. Experimental Design and Variables
        3. Subjects and Procedure
      3. Results
      4. Discussion
        1. Main Findings
        2. Limitations
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  24. 17. Decision Aiding Research Needs
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Requirements of Successful Decision Aid
      2. Research to Enhance Decision Aid
        1. Currently Prevailing Research Criteria
        2. Distinctive Features of Practice-Driven Research
    4. ILLUSTRATIVE PROJECTS
      1. Topics Already Partly Explored
      2. As Yet Undeveloped Topics
        1. Decision Training
        2. Decision Strategy
        3. General Decision Tool Design Principles
        4. Development of Specific Tools
        5. Empirical Feedback on Aid Usefulness
      3. Getting the Needed Research Done
        1. Rating Research Usefulness
        2. Making the Evaluation
        3. Getting Usefulness Rating Adopted
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTES
  25. 18. The Decision Hedgehog: Group Communication and Decision Support
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THE DECISION HEDGEHOG
      1. Nurturing the Decision-Hedgehog Rhizome
      2. Enabling Collaborative Authoring of Outcomes
    3. GROUP DECISION AUTHORING AND COMMUNICATION SUPPORT (GDACS)
    4. REFERENCES
  26. 19. Decision Making and Support Tools for Design of Machining Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MACHINE TOOL ENGINEERING
    4. DECISION MAKING METHODOLOGY
      1. Product/Process Modeling
        1. Part Modeling
        2. Process Planning
        3. Generation of Constraints
      2. Logical Layout Optimization
        1. Problem Statement
      3. Cycle Time Calculation
      4. Modeling of Constraints
      5. Optimization Model
    5. 3D-MODEL AND COST ESTIMATION
    6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  27. 20. Decision-Making and Support Tools for Design of Transmission Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. CONCEPTUAL PROBLEM STATEMENT
    4. GENERAL SCHEME OF DECISIONMAKING AND DECISION-SUPPORT TOOL ARCHITECTURE
    5. METHODS FOR DECISION MAKING
      1. Optimization Model
      2. Kinematic Computation
      3. Strength Optimization
      4. Refined Strength Optimization
    6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  28. 21. Decision Making by a Multiple-Rule Classifier: The Role of Rule Qualities
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RULE QUALITY: CHARACTERISTICS, FORMULAS, AND COMBINATION SCHEMES
    4. APPLICATION
    5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  29. 22. Decision Making Support in Emergency Response
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Approaches Focused on Previous Personal Knowledge
      2. Approaches Focused on Previous Formal Knowledge
      3. Approaches Focused on Current Contextual Knowledge
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  30. 23. Decision Support and Problem Formulation Activity
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. HOW DSS CAN SUPPORT PROBLEM FORMULATION
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  31. 24. A Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in a Computer-Integrated Production System
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND
      1. Problem Structure and Intangible Investments
      2. Shortages of Traditional Techniques and Some New Requirements
    3. MULTIATTRIBUTE SUPPORT FOR THE SELECTION OF A COMPUTER-INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM
      1. Methodological Background
      2. An Illustrative Case
      3. Decision Process
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ENDNOTE
  32. 25. A Decision Support System for Selecting Secure Web Services
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. SECURITY DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (SDSS)
    4. THE ARCHITECTURE
    5. DEFINING SECURITY CRITERIA
    6. STORING SECURITY PROFILE
    7. GENERATING ALTERNATIVES
    8. FUTURE TRENDS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  33. 26. Decision Support Systems and Decision-Making Processes
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND TO DECISION-MAKING
    3. PROBLEMS AND DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES
    4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE DSS FIELD
      1. The DDM Paradigm
      2. Levels of Technology
      3. Iterative Design
      4. Organisational Environment
    5. DSS: PAST AND PRESENT
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  34. 27. Decision Support Systems and Representation Levels in the Decision Spine
    1. INTRODUCTION: DECISION-MAKING AS PROBLEM SOLVING
    2. LEVELS OF REPRESENTATION OF DECISION PROBLEMS
      1. At Level 5
      2. At Level 4
      3. At Level 3
      4. Below Level 3
    3. DECISION SUPPORT WITHIN AND BEYOND THE DECISION SPINE:
      1. From GDSS to GDACS
    4. REFERENCES
    5. ENDNOTE
  35. 28. Decision Support Systems Concept
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FUTURE TRENDS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  36. 29. Development and Design Methodologies in DWM
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES
      1. Data Warehouse Data Modeling
      2. CIF vs. Multidimensional
      3. Data-Driven vs. Metric-driven
      4. Top-Down vs. Bottom-up
      5. Materialized View
      6. Data Partitioning and Parallel Processing
      7. Data Mining
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  37. 30. Diagrammatic Decision-Support Modeling Tools in the Context of Supply Chain Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND: A CUSTOMER ORDER MANAGEMENT SCENARIO MODELING AND DECISION-MAKING CONTEXT
    3. DIAGRAMS
      1. Causal (Feedback) Loop Diagrams
      2. Influence Diagrams
      3. Decision Tree Diagrams
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  38. 31. The Disaster-Oriented Assessment of Urban Clusters for Locating Production Systems in China
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. The Criteria for Assessment
      2. Experimental Case Study
      3. ANP Model Construction
      4. Paired Comparisons
      5. Supermatrix Calculation
      6. Location Selection
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ANNEX
  39. 32. Distributed Model Management: Current Status and Future Directions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. DISTRIBUTED MODEL MANAGEMENT
      1. Web Services and Distributed MM
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  40. 33. DS/AHP
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. DS/AHP ANALYSIS OF EXAMPLE DECISION PROBLEM
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  41. 34. DSS and Multiple Perspectives of Complex Problems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Why Perspectives Are Lost in GSS
      2. Philosophical Bases for Perspective Support in DSS
      3. Perspective Making & Perspective Taking
      4. Other System-Based Perspective Support Efforts
    3. DSS AND TECHNICAL, PERSONAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVES
    4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  42. 35. DSS Using Visualization of Multi-Algorithms Voting
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      1. Cluster Analysis
      2. Hierarchical Clustering Methods
      3. Likelihood-Similarity Measure
      4. Visualization: Dendrogram
      5. Visualization: Additional Methods
        1. Discriminant Analysis and Factor Analysis
      6. Self-Organization Maps (SOM)
      7. Visualization: Discussion
    3. DSS USING VISUALIZATION OF MULTI-ALGORITHMS VOTING
      1. The Visual Analysis Model
      2. Vote Matrix
      3. Heterogeneity Meter
        1. Squared VE (Vote Error)
        2. Distance From Second Best (DFSB)
        3. Heterogeneity Meter Implementation
        4. Visual Pattern Characteristics
      4. Well-Classified Samples
      5. Samples that are Hard to Classify
      6. Algorithms that are Effective for a Certain Cluster
      7. Wrongly Classified Samples
    4. IMPLEMENTATION: THE CASE OF WINE RECOGNITION
      1. The Dataset
      2. The Implementation
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  43. A. APPENDIX A: THE REARRANGED VOTE MATRIX
  44. 36. Dynamic System Simulation for Decision Support
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Simulation as a Mode of Inquiry
      2. Discrete Event and Monte Carlo Simulation
    3. DYNAMIC SYSTEM SIMULATION
      1. Continuous Event Simulation for a Simple Physical Process
      2. Dynamic Systems Simulation for a More Complex System
      3. Systems Dynamics Example
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  45. 37. Ethical Decision Making: A Critical Assessment and an Integrated Model
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. INDIVIDUAL FACTORS
      1. Organizational Factor
      2. Moral Intensity
      3. Cultural Dimension
      4. Culture and Ethical Decision Making
      5. Influence of Culture on Personal Values
    4. AN INTEGRATED MODEL OF ETHICAL DECISION MAKING: THE CASE OF MALAYSIA
    5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  46. 38. Evaluation of Decision-Making Support Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. DECISION VALUE OF DMSS
      1. Multicriteria Model
      2. Unified Architecture for Evaluation and Design of DMSS
      3. Example of Utilization of the Unified Architecture for Evaluation of DMSS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  47. 39. The Evaluation of Decision-Making Support Systems' Functionality
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. EVALUATION OF DMSS COMPONENT SYSTEMS THROUGH SIMULATION
      1. Issues, Controversies, and Problems
      2. Solutions and Recommendations
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  48. 40. Exploring the Risks That Affect Community College Decision Makers
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RISKS THAT AFFECT COMMUNITY COLLEGE DECISION MAKERS
    4. FURTHER TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  49. 41. An Extended Model of Decision Making: A Devil’s Advocate Workshop
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. AWARENESS AND PREPAREDNESS
    5. DESIGN OF THE DEVIL’S ADVOCATE WORKSHOP
    6. THE BENEFITS OF A DEVIL’S ADVOCATE WORKSHOP
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    11. ENDNOTES
  50. 42. Facilitation of Supply Chain Decision Processes in SMEs, Using Information Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. SUPPLY CHAIN DECISION MAKING IN SMES
      1. The Supply Chain and Supply Chain Management
      2. The Small to Medium Enterprise in the Supply Chain
      3. Using IS To Facilitate Supply Chain Decisions In SMEs
        1. Supply Chain Decision Making Processes Within SMEs
        2. Supply Chain Decision Making Processes External to SMEs
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  51. 43. A Federative Approach of Decision-Making Aid in Urban Development
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. NEW APPROACHES OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT
      1. Concept of Urban Observatory
      2. Components of a City
      3. Federation of the Tools for a Better Management of the Urban Development
      4. The Acquisition of the Data
      5. Data Processing and Storage
    4. DISSEMINATION OF KNOWLEDGE
      1. A Decision Support Platform for the Urban Activities
      2. Functional Architecture
    5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER TRENDS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  52. 44. Finite-Base Revision Supporting Knowledge Management and Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FINITE-BASE REVISION AS A KM APPROACH
      1. Compromise Reasoning
      2. Compromise Revision (CR)
      3. Compromise Contraction and Compromise Revision Steps
      4. Basic Definitions
      5. The Compromise Revision Postulates
      6. Some Issues of Compromise Revision and their Adopted Solutions
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  53. 45. Fuzzy Decision Trees
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Fuzzy Decision Tree Analyses of Example Data Set
      2. Analysis With Two MF Based Fuzzication of Condition Attributes
      3. Analysis with Three MF Based Fuzzication Of Condition Attributes
    3. FUTURE TRENDS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  54. 46. Fuzzy Thermal Alarm System for Venus Express
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Fuzzy Inference Systems
      2. New Choquet-TSK Inference Scheme
    3. THE VENUS EXPRESS THERMAL MONITORING TOOL
      1. Objectives
      2. General System Description
      3. Input and Output Variable Representations
      4. System’s Rule Base
      5. Venus Express Choquet-TSK Inference Scheme
      6. Tests and Validation
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  55. 47. Games of Strategy
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. WHAT IS GAME THEORY?
    4. CAKE DIVISION
    5. GAMES AS TREES
    6. GAMES AS TABLES
    7. THE ORIGINAL PRISONERS’ DILEMMA
      1. Resolving the Prisoners’ Dilemma
    8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    11. ENDNOTES
  56. 48. Goal Programming and Its Variants
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Strengths and Weaknesses
      2. Mathematical Descriptions for Two Basic GPs
      3. Variants of GP and New Theoretical Breakthrough
      4. Main Applications of GP
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  57. 49. Group Verbal Decision Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MULTISET MODEL FOR REPRESENTATION OF MULTI-ATTRIBUTE OBJECTS
    4. ORDERING MULTI-ATTRIBUTE OBJECTS
    5. CLASSIFICATION OF MULTI-ATTRIBUTE OBJECTS
    6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  58. 50. How Groupware Systems Can Change How an Organisation Makes Decisions: A Case Study in the Publishing Industry1
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND TO THE CASE
    3. MAIN FOCUS: THE STUDY AT XYZ
    4. CHARACTERISING DECISION MAKING AT XYZ
      1. Editorial Decision Making
        1. Sourcing Information
        2. Making the Newspaper
    5. SELLING ADS: THE OTHER AREA OF DECISION MAKING
    6. IMPLEMENTING A GROUPWARE SYSTEM FOR EDITORIAL ACTIVITIES
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    10. ENDNOTE
  59. 51. Identifying Resilient Actions in Decision Making During Emergencies
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  60. 52. The Impact on Decision Making of Centralisation in a Multinational Manufacturing Company: The Materials Purchasing Function
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MRP: THE FIRST STEP ON THE ROAD TO BUSINESS INTEGRATION
    4. CENTRALISATION AND MATERIALS PLANNING
    5. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
    6. THE RESEARCH METHOD
    7. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY
    8. MATERIAL PLANNING PROCESSES AT SIT
    9. FINDINGS
      1. Organisational Dimension of Centralisation
      2. Decisional Dimension of Centralisation
      3. Informational Dimension of Centralisation
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    12. REFERENCES
    13. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    14. ENDNOTE
  61. 53. The Implementation of Large-Scale Decision-Making Support Systems: Problems, Findings, and Challenges
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE BARRIERS TO ACHIEVING SUCCESSFUL DMSS IMPLEMENTATIONS
    4. MAIN FINDINGS ON LARGE-SCALE DMSS IMPLEMENTATIONS
    5. CHALLENGES AND TRENDS OF LARGE-SCALE DMSS IMPLEMENTATIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    9. ENDNOTE
  62. 54. Ineffective Decision Making in Adopting an Agile Software Development Methodology
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. CONCERNS WITH ASD AND DECISION MAKING
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  63. 55. Influence Diagrams as a Tool for Decision Support System Design
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. INFLUENCE DIAGRAMS
      1. Influence Diagrams in Decision Analysis
      2. Influence Diagrams for Decision Support Systems
      3. Influence Diagrams and Spreadsheet Design
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  64. 56. The Influence of Emotions in Making Hard Decisions in Organizational Contexts
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE INFLUENCE OF EMOTIONS IN MAKING HARD DECISIONS IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXTS
      1. Method
      2. Data Analysis
      3. Participants
      4. Results & Discussion
    4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  65. 57. Information Distribution Decisions Supported by Argumentation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION USING DEFEASIBLE ARGUMENTATION
    4. MODELING HIERARCHIES AND POLICIES WITH DELP
    5. AN EXAMPLE: DISTRIBUTING MEMOS IN ACME INC
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      1. Glossary
  66. 58. Integration of Diagrammatic Business Modeling Tools
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND: EVENT-DRIVEN PROCESS CHAIN
    3. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR BUSINESS MODELING TOOLS
      1. Decision-Enabling Capability
      2. Process Modeling Capability
      3. Integrated Triangulation Paradigm
    4. DECISION-ENABLED eEPC
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  67. 59. Intelligent Agents in Decision Support Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. INTELLIGENT AGENTS IN DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
      1. Support for Decision Making
      2. Applications of Intelligent Decision Support Systems
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  68. 60. Intelligent DSS Under Verbal Decision Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. METHOD UNICOMBOS AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MULTI-CRITERIA COMPARISON AND CHOICE
      1. DM’s Preferences
      2. Elicitation of Preferences
      3. Preference Inference
    4. CONSTRUCTION OF EXPERT KNOWLEDGE BASE
      1. Application Domain Structuring
      2. Expert Classification
    5. MULTIPLE CRITERIA ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM
      1. A General Statement of the Multi-Criteria Assignment Problem
      2. Basic Algorithm to Solve the Multi-Criteria Assignment Problem
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  69. 61. Interfaces Usability for Monitoring Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
      1. Fuzzy Knowledge-Based Systems
    2. USABILITY IN INTERFACES
    3. CASE STUDY: MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS FOR MARS DRILLER (MODI)
      1. Input and Output Variables
      2. Alarm System's Rule Base
      3. Terrain-Hardness Detection's Rule Base
      4. Graphical Visualization Tool
    4. MODI INTERFACE USABILITY DISCUSSION
    5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    6. ACKOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  70. 62. Introduction to Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Linear Programming
    1. FUZZY LOGIC
      1. What is Fuzzy Logic?
      2. Why Use Fuzzy Logic?
      3. When Not to Use Fuzzy Logic?
      4. Fuzzy Sets
      5. Membership Function
    2. LINEAR PROGRAMMING
      1. Methods of Optimization
      2. Fuzzy Linear Programming
        1. (a) FLP Problems with Fuzzy Constraints
        2. (b) FLP Problems with Fuzzy Coeffcients
    3. PRODUCT MIX PROBLEM USING FUZZY LOGIC
      1. Introduction
      2. Problem Statement
        1. Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem:
      3. Mathematics Model for FlP Problem
        1. The FPS is stated as:
      4. Results And Findings
      5. Units of Products z* for Various Vagueness Values α:
        1. The 3-D Plot for µ, α And Z*
      6. Fuzzy α Selection and Decision Making
      7. Discussion
      8. Algorithm
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  71. 63. Introduction to Multi-Agent Simulation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. SIMULATION TECHNIQUES
    3. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS
      1. Organisations as Complex Systems
      2. Agents, Intelligence, and MASs
    4. MAS DESIGN
      1. Design Methodologies
      2. Agent Architectures
      3. Internal Structure and Data Format
    5. AN EXAMPLE OF A MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM
    6. RESOURCES
      1. Software Resources
      2. Formal Bodies, Discussion Groups, and Organisations
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  72. 64. Knowledge Based DSS
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Concepts Related to the DSS Conceptual Framework
      2. Repetitive and One-Shot Decisions
      3. Underlying Hypothesis of the DSS Approach
      4. Normative Decision Theory and Descriptive Approach to Decision
      5. Relationship with Learning
    3. CONCEPTS RELATED TO THE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM (KS) CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      1. Explanation Based Learning
      2. The Problem of Knowledge Extraction
    4. THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF KNOWLEDGE BASED DSS APPLICATIONS
      1. Motivation of the KB-DSS Framework
    5. PROGRESS BROUGHT BY THE KD-DSS CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      1. Combining Models and Reasoning for Better Support
      2. Combining Procedural Knowledge and Models with Reasoning
      3. Strategies for Coupling the Use of Resources
    6. DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FOR KB-DSS APPLICATIONS
    7. VALIDATION OF THE FRAMEWORK
    8. CONCLUSION AND SOME WORDS OF CAUTION: PROBLEM OF IMPLEMENTATION AND DECISIONS ONE SHOULD NOT TRY TO SUPPORT
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
  73. 65. Knowledge Representation to Empower Expert Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION ISSUES3
      1. Negation
      2. Negation-as-Failure
      3. Strong Negation
      4. "Tricks" to Represent Strong Negation
    4. META-INTERPRETER FOR EXTENDED LOGIC PROGRAMS
      1. Defaults with Exceptions
    5. SELECTIVELY IMPLEMENTING CWA
    6. REASONING ABOUT ACTIONS AND TIME
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    11. ENDNOTES
  74. 66. A Knowledge Worker Desktop Model (KWDM) Applied to Decision Support System
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THE KNOWLEDGE WORKER AT HIS COMPUTERIZED DESKTOP
      1. The Evolution of the Employees Role within the Company
    3. THE THREE GENERAL CATEGORIES OF DATA
        1. The "Main-Stream" Data
        2. The "Source-of-Knowledge" Data
        3. The "Shared" Data
      1. The Knowledge Worker Desktop's Model (KWDM)
    4. A GROUP DECISION AND NEGOTIATION SYSTEM FOR OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT (OPM)
      1. A Brief Description of the GDNS
      2. The Challenge
      3. The Approach
        1. IT Stream: A Real Time Data Management DSS
        2. Analytical Stream: Analytical Information (modeling)
        3. Business Process Stream: Business Organization and Change Management
        4. The Results
        5. Strenth and Weakness
    5. MATCHING KWDM'S ELEMENTS WITH THE OPERATIONAL CONTROL CENTER (PC OPS'S) COMPONENTS
      1. The "Main-Stream" Data
      2. The "Source-Of-Knowledge" Data
      3. The "Shared" Data
      4. The Constraints
      5. The Experts
      6. The Decisions/Actions
      7. Synthesis
    6. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVE
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  75. 67. Logic Programming Languages for Expert Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. LOGIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES4
      1. Overview
      2. Deductive Databases
        1. Example
      3. Monotonic Deductive Databases
        1. Example
      4. Extended Logic Programs
        1. Example
        2. Example
      5. Disjunctive Logic Programs
      6. Epistemic Specifications
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
      1. Current Research
      2. Implementation: The Language of Choice for the Practitioner
      3. Implementation: The "Compiler"
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTES
  76. 68. Metaheuristics: Heuristic Techniques for Combinatorial Optimization Problems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. OVERVIEW OF METAHEURISTIC PRINCIPLES
      1. Tabu Search (TS)
      2. Simulated Annealing (SA)
      3. Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP)
      4. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)
      5. Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs)
      6. Scatter Search (SS)
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTES
  77. 69. Metasystemic Re-Engineering: An Organizational Intervention
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. METHODOLOGY
      1. The Development of the Organizational Observer
    3. THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY
      1. Main Steps of the Process
    4. FINAL REMARKS
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  78. 70. A Method for Systematic Artifact Selection Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
      1. Decision Making
      2. Decision Support Systems
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Background to the Original DSS
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. A DSS for Systematic Artifact comparison and selection: A Generalization of SUIT
        1. Artifact Selection Based on a Generic Comparison of Artifacts
        2. Artifact Selection Based on a Specific Needs Case
        3. Needs Case-Specific Artifact Selection Based on Comparison with Previous Needs Cases
      2. Worked example
    4. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  79. 71. The Method of Appraising Needs and Possibilities of Activity-Based Costing Implementation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. State of ABC Implementation in Companies in Poland
      2. Why and How to Investigate the ABC implementation Needs and Possibilities
    3. METHOD AND RESULTS OF APPRAISING THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THE ABC IMPLEMENTATION
      1. Method of Appraising the Needs for the ABC Implementation
      2. Needs for the ABC Implementation: Research Outcomes
      3. Method of Appraising the Possibilities of the ABC Implementation
      4. Possibilities of the ABC Implementation: Research Outcomes
    4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ENDNOTES
  80. 72. Mobile Decision Support for Time-Critical Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. MOBILE DECISION SUPPORT
    3. APPROACHES TO AND REQUIREMENTS OF TIME-CRITICAL DECISION SUPPORT
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  81. 73. Multi-Agent Simulation and Management Practices
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Existing Tools for Modelling the Impact of Management Practices
      2. Choosing a Suitable Modelling Technique
      3. Agent-Based Simulation: Our Choice
    3. SIMULATION MODEL DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      1. Modelling Concepts
      2. Agent Design
      3. Implementation
    4. TEST OF THE SIMULATOR
    5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  82. 74. The Mythical Decision Maker: Models of Roles in Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MODELS OF DECISION-MAKING ROLES
      1. Economics and Mathematics
      2. Challenges on the Rational View
      3. Management and Organizational Theories
      4. Supporting Problem-Solving Group Work
      5. Decision Support Systems: Use, Development, and Implementation
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ENDNOTE
  83. 75. Neural Network Time Series Forecasting Using Recency Weighting
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      1. The Experiment
      2. Results
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  84. 76. Next Generation Analytics and Dynamic Decision Support: AutoMarketSIM and Vehicle Sales Decay Navigation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Connectedness and Causal Networks
      2. Disruptive Events, Business Dynamics, and Feedback Loops
    3. MAIN FOCUS: BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE ANALYTICS FRAMEWORK
      1. Phase 1: Problem Description and Research Question
      2. Phase 2: Conceptual Model
      3. Phase 3: Formal and Computational Model
      4. Instrument and Measurement Validation
      5. Analytical Depth
    4. EXAMPLE: AUTO LIFECYCLE AGING AND SALES DECAY NAVIGATION
      1. Business Problem
      2. Problem Properties
      3. Analytical Method and Data
      4. Results and Benefits
    5. FUTURE TREND: AUTOMARKETSIM—DYNAMIC MARKET SIMULATION
      1. Business Problem
      2. Problem Properties
      3. Analytical Method and Data
      4. Results and Benefits
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  85. 77. On Frameworks and Architectures for Intelligent Decision-Making Support Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. The Decision-Making Process
      2. A Generic Decision-Making Process
      3. A Review of General Design Frameworks and Architectures for i-DMSS
    3. FUTURE TRENDS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  86. 78. Online Environmental Information Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. E-Governance and E-Democracy
      2. Environmental Information and Community Participation
    3. ONLINE ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  87. 79. Online Urban Information Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Community Based WebGIS Approach
    3. THE SHIBUYA CITY WEBGIS PROJECT
      1. Map Components and Database
      2. Internet Map Server
      3. Using the System
    4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  88. 80. Performance Measurement: From DEA to MOLP
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Papers in Which MOLP is used in DEA
      2. DEA Models with Additional Objective Functions
      3. The Li and Reeves Model (1999)
      4. The TRIMAP
    3. THE LI AND REEVES (1999) MODEL AND THE TRIMAP
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  89. 81. Policy Decision Support Through Social Simulation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. POLICY DECISIONS SUPPORTED ON SOCIAL SIMULATION
      1. The Purpose Of Agent-Based Exploratory Simulation
      2. Methodology For Exploratory Simulation
      3. Policy Decision Support
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  90. 82. The Power of Incentives in Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. INCENTIVES IN THE WORKPLACE
      1. Hidden Actions and Hidden Knowledge in Information Technology Security
      2. Designing the Right Incentives
      3. Designing an IS Outsourcing Contract
      4. Other Uses for Incentives
      5. A Word of Caution
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ENDNOTES
  91. 83. Probabilistic Methods for Uncertainty Quantification
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Expert Knowledge
      2. Two Components of Uncertainty
      3. Methods for Uncertainty Quantification
    3. GENERALIZED INTERVAL ESTIMATIONS FOR UNCERTAINTY QUANTIFICATION AND PROPAGATION
      1. Motivation
      2. Poly-Interval Estimation
      3. Generalized Interval Estimation
      4. GIE Trace
      5. GIE Arithmetic
        1. GIE as Generalization of Probability Bounds and Dempster-Shafer Structures
    4. OIL RESERVOIR ASSESSMENT CASE STUDY
    5. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    6. NOTE
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  92. 84. PROMETHEE
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. PROMETHEE ANALYSIS OF EXAMPLE DATA SET
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  93. 85. Qualitative Comparative Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. EXAMPLE QCA ANALYSES
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  94. 86. Rational Decision Making, Dual Processes, and Framing: Current Thoughts and Perspectives
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THEORETICAL APPROACHES
      1. Two Approaches: The "Should" and the "Do"
      2. Expected Value and Utility Theories
      3. Expected Value Approach
      4. Expected Utility Theory Approach
      5. Problem Presentation and Choice
      6. Prospect Theory
    3. CONTEMPORARY DUAL-PROCESSING APPROACHES
      1. Dual Process and Framing
      2. The Analytic-Holistic Model
      3. Supportive Research
        1. Relevance Assumption
        2. Personality Assumption
        3. Hemispheric Assumption
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  95. 87. Real Options Reasoning as a Tool for Managerial Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. REAL OPTIONS ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTES
  96. 88. The Role of Information in Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION IN DECISION MAKING
      1. Search Costs
      2. Role of Advertising
      3. Role of Regulation
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ENDNOTES
  97. 89. Rough Set Theory
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. VPRSβ ANALYSIS OF EXAMPLE DECISION TABLE
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      1. Glossary
  98. 90. Situational Synchronicity for Decision Support
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RESULTS OF THE STUDY
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  99. 91. Software Agents
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FORMAL MODELING FOR SOFTWARE AGENTS
    4. APPLICATION DOMAINS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    9. ENDNOTES
  100. 92. A Study of Information Requirement Determination Process of an Executive Information System
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. Incomplete and/or Inaccurate Requirements Specifications
      2. Lack of User Involvement
      3. Lack of Flexibility of Computer-Based Information Systems
      4. Poor Communication
      5. Worldview of the Systems Analysts
      6. Other Factors
    3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    4. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      1. Theme 1: Problems in the Using IRD Methodology
      2. Theme 2: Lack of User Involvement
      3. Theme 3: Lack of User Satisfaction
      4. Theme 4: Lack of Project Scope
      5. Theme 5: Culture and Politics
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  101. 93. Supply Chain Information Systems and Decision Support
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND DECISION SUPPORT
    4. STRUCTURE OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN
    5. SUPPLIER SELECTION
    6. INFORMATION AND INVENTORY
    7. INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
    8. ANALYTIC SYSTEMS
    9. FUTURE TRENDS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  102. 94. A Support System for the Strategic Scenario Process
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND
      1. Defining Scenarios
    3. SUPPORT METHODS
      1. Scenario Process
    4. EXPERIENCES WITH THE SUPPORTED SCENARIO PROCESS
      1. Problem Setting
      2. Identification of the Drivers
      3. Preliminary Scenarios
      4. Final Scenarios
    5. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  103. 95. Supporting Decisional Episodes
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. The Knowledge Management Ontology
      2. Knowledge Manipulation Activities
      3. Knowledge Management Influences
      4. The Knowledge Chain
    3. COMPUTER-BASED SUPPORT OF DECISIONAL EPISODES
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  104. 96. Syndicate Date Suppliers: Their Business Environment, the Industry, and Their Core Business Process
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT OF SYNDICATE DATE SUPPLIERS
      1. The Industry of Syndicate Date Supplies
    4. THE CORE BUSINESS PROCESS OF SYNDICATE DATA SUPPLIERS
      1. Acquire Data from Data Sources
      2. Integrate/Refine Data and Develop Services
      3. Selling and Delivering Data
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  105. 97. Team Learning Systems as a Collaborative Technology for Rapid Knowledge Creation
    1. INTRODUCTION
      1. Tools for Thinking
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      1. Early Work with the TLS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS: LEARNERS AS COLLABORATIVE DESIGNERS
      1. Collaborative Knowledge Creation
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  106. 98. ThinkClick: A Case Study of a Large Group Decision Support System (LGDSS)
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAUT
      1. The Case
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      1. Methodology
      2. Description of ThinkClick
        1. The Process
    5. FINDINGS
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    10. ENDNOTES
  107. 99. ThinkTeam: GDSS Methodology and Technology as a Collaborative Learning Task
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
      1. An Answer to a Specific Need
    3. MAUT
      1. Learning Tasks Pedagogical Potential (Why DMLT is a Highly Potent Learning Task)
      2. Could These Serve a Purpose in a Modern Learning Environment?
      3. Some Technological Background
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
      1. Some Examples as Triggers to Illustrate MAUT Based Decision Making as a Leaning Process of Curricular Knowledge
        1. The Sweater Game
      2. "Boston Public" 1
      3. Examples of the Decision-Making Tasks in the Educational Dilemmas Collection
        1. Calgary Military Museum
      4. ThinkTeam: The Tool
      5. Implementation So Far: Findings
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    9. ENDNOTE
  108. 100. Towards a Framework for Assisting Decision-Makers Assess the Potential of E-Business Models
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN BODY
      1. Economic Control
      2. Functional Integration
      3. Supply/Value-Chain Integration
      4. Innovation
      5. Sourcing
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  109. 101. Unambiguous Goal Seeking Through Mathematical Modeling
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. GOAL SEEKING AND AMBIGUITY IN DECISION MAKING
    4. REDUCING AMBIGUITY WITH MATHEMATICAL MODELING
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  110. B. APPENDIX
  111. 102. Uncertainty and Vagueness Concepts in Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FUNDAMENTALS OF PROBABILITY, FUZZY SETS, AND ROUGH SETS, AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH EACH OTHER
      1. Probability
      2. Kolmogorov Axioms
      3. Concepts of Probability
      4. Degrees of Uncertainty
      5. Fuzzy Set Theory
      6. Fuzzy Sets
      7. Linguistic Variables
      8. Fuzzy Sets as Measure for Similarities or Neighborhood Relations
      9. Fuzzy Sets and Probability
      10. Fuzzy Logic
      11. Possibility Theory
      12. Rough Sets
        1. Missing or Contradicting Information
        2. Too Much Data
        3. Variations of Rough Set Theory
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    7. ENDNOTE
  112. 103. Understanding Non-Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Various Forms of Category Manipulation
      2. Example of Non-Decision Making in an ERP Community
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCE
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  113. 104. Understanding Sense-Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Properties of Sense-Making
      2. Components of the Sense-Making Process
      3. Thought and Action
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
      1. The Impact of Sense-Making Theory on Research
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  114. 105. Understanding the Influence of Context on Organisational Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. ORGANISATIONAL NETWORK ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY
      1. Facing a Changing Organisational Context
      2. Overall Decision Making at ABC
      3. Extended Network of Actors Shaping Decision Making
      4. Structural Change at ABC
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTE
  115. 106. Understanding the Legacy of Herbert Simon to Decision Support Systems1
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE DECISION PROCESS
      1. Towards a Model of the Decision Making Process
      2. Programmable and Nonprogrammable Decisions
      3. From Substantive Rationality to Bounded Rationality
      4. Decisions and Organizations
    4. FUTURE TRENDS: WHAT SIMON’S WORK MEANS FOR THE FUTURE OF DSS RESEARCH
      1. Management and Decision Making
      2. Decision Process
      3. Bounded Rationality
      4. Decisions and Organization
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
    8. ENDNOTE
  116. 107. The Use of Simulation as an Experimental Methodology for DMSS Research
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. STRATEGY SIMULATION FOR HYPOTHESIS TESTING
      1. Management Problem
      2. Decision-Making Support
      3. Hypothesis Testing
    4. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  117. 108. Using Network Analysis for Understanding How Decisions are Made
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. PRINCIPLES OF THE NETWORK PERSPECTIVE
    4. DIFFICULTIES WITH NETWORK REPRESENTATION AND VISUALISATION
    5. DISCOVERING AND SETTING NETWORK BOUNDARIES
    6. STUDYING THE DECISIONAL NETWORKS OF ORGANISATIONS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  118. 109. Web-Based Decision Support for Knowledge Sharing and Management in Intelligent Buildings Assessment
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
      1. Methodology
      2. The KIV Model
      3. The IB-Cast Toolkit
      4. The IB-Radar Toolkit
      5. The IB-Compass Toolkit
      6. The IB-GIS Toolkit
      7. A Case Study
    4. FURTHER TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary
  119. 110. Web-Based Public Participatory GIS
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. GIS, INTERNET, AND E-GOVERNMENT
    4. WEB-BASED PUBLIC PARTICIPATORY GIS
    5. LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND THE USE OF WPPGIS
    6. CASE STUDIES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT WPPGIS EXPERIENCES
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS
      1. Glossary