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Encyclopedia of Business Analytics and Optimization

Book Description

As the age of Big Data emerges, it becomes necessary to take the five dimensions of Big Data- volume, variety, velocity, volatility, and veracity- and focus these dimensions towards one critical emphasis - value. The Encyclopedia of Business Analytics and Optimization confronts the challenges of information retrieval in the age of Big Data by exploring recent advances in the areas of knowledge management, data visualization, interdisciplinary communication, and others. Through its critical approach and practical application, this book will be a must-have reference for any professional, leader, analyst, or manager interested in making the most of the knowledge resources at their disposal.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
    1. The Prospects and Challenges Confronting the Rising Tide of Big Data
    2. REFERENCES
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. About the Editor
  8. Chapter 1: 3-Step Analytics Success with Parsimonious Models
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS: INSIDE ANALYTICS AND THE ‘NAPKIN TEST’
    4. BA EXAMPLE: RETURN ON AUTO MARKETING INVESTMENTS
    5. FUTURE TREND
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Chapter 2: A Mathematical Model to Plan the Adoption of EHR Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. DISCUSSION
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Chapter 3: A New Tree-Based Classifier for Satellite Images
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. METHODOLOGY
    4. CASE STUDY AND RESULTS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Chapter 4: Academic Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Chapter 5: Advance Information Sharing in Supply Chains
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ADVANCE INFORMATION SHARING
    3. CHALLENGES FOR INFORMATION SHARING
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Chapter 6: Advanced Methodologies Descriptions and Applications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. NEURAL NETWORKS
    5. GENETIC ALGORITHMS/EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTING
    6. PATTERN RECOGNITION
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  14. Chapter 7: Agent-Based Service Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. TOWARDS AN AGENT-BASED SERVICE ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. ADDITIONAL READING SECTION
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. Chapter 8: An Overview of Cognition Roles in Decision-Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. ATTENTION AS SELECTION, PREPARATION AND MAINTENANCE: DETERMINES INITIAL PERCEPTION OF PROBLEM
    5. CATEGORIZATION AS A BASIS FOR SITUATION RECOGNITION: STORAGE OF CHARACTERISTICS AND RECONSTITUTION
    6. CATEGORIZATION AS THE BASIS FOR SITUATED PERCEPTION
    7. CATEGORIZATION AS THE BASIS FOR INFERENCES ABOUT THE PROBLEM
    8. MEMORY AS AN INFORMATION SOURCE
    9. MEMORY AS A CONSTRAINT ON INFORMATION ACQUISITION
    10. MEMORY AS A BASIS FOR RAPID PERCEPTION AND AN AGILE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
    11. EMOTION AS AN INFORMATION SOURCE
    12. EMOTION DIRECTING ATTENTION TO RELEVANT ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM
    13. EMOTION’S SPEEDING ROLE, PERMITTING QUICK DECISIONS UNDER TIME CONSTRAINTS
    14. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    15. CONCLUSION
    16. REFERENCES
    17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. Chapter 9: Analysis of Maintenance Operations A Case Application
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. CASE APPLICATION FOR MAINTENANCE MODELING
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  17. Chapter 10: Analysis of Non-Stationary Time-Series Business Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. Chapter 11: Analytic Rubrics for Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. APPENDIX 1
    9. APPENDIX 2
    10. APPENDIX 3
  19. Chapter 12: Analytics for Nonprofits
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. NONPROFIT ANALYTICS
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. Chapter 13: Anonymity and Pseudonymity in Data-Driven Science
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PRIVACY-PRESERVING DATA PUBLISHING IN DATA-DRIVEN SCIENCE
    5. CONCEPTS
    6. MODELS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. Chapter 14: Ant Colony Algorithm for Single Stage Supply Chain
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    6. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  22. Chapter 15: Ant Colony Algorithm for Two Stage Supply Chain
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    6. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  23. Chapter 16: Applied Game Theory in Business Analytics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  24. Chapter 17: Applying Process Mining to the Emergency Department
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. PROCESS MINING PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
    3. A CASE FOR THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT
    4. DEALING WITH LARGE VARIABILITY IN FLOWS: CLUSTERING
    5. CONTROL-FLOW ANALYSIS: PROCESS DISCOVERY
    6. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. DISCUSSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  25. Chapter 18: Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  26. Chapter 19: Artificial Neural Networks for Business Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. APPENDIX
  27. Chapter 20: Assessment of Disruption Risks in Supply Chains
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. CURRENT STUDIES IN SUPPLY CHAIN RISK MANAGEMENT
    4. A DISRUPTION RISK ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  28. Chapter 21: Bankruptcy Prediction Using Data Mining Tools
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. DATA MINING TOOLS
    4. DATA COLLECTION AND RESEARCH DESIGN
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  29. Chapter 22: Barriers to E-Application in Agrifood Supply Chain
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW AND IDENTIFICATION OF BARRIERS
    4. BARRIER ANALYSIS
    5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    6. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  30. Chapter 23: Bayesian Variable Selection
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  31. Chapter 24: Behavioral Performance Evaluation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. BEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: A NEW AREA OF RESEARCH
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  32. Chapter 25: Behavioral Planning Theory
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. MAIN FOCUS
    3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES
    4. RESEARCH AGENDA
    5. LESSONS FROM BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  33. Chapter 26: Benchmarking of Indian Rail Freight by DEA
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. APPLICATION TO BENCHMARKING OF INDIAN RAILWAY CONTAINER BUSINESS
    6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. LIMITATIONS
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH AVENUES
    10. REFERENCES
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  34. Chapter 27: Bender Decomposition
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  35. Chapter 28: Biased Randomization of Classical Heuristics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  36. Chapter 29: Big Data Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. VOLUME, VARIETY, AND VELOCITY OF BIG DATA
    3. DOES RELATIONAL DATABASE SOLVE BIG DATA PROBLEM?
    4. BIG DATA ANALYTICS
    5. SCALABILITY METHODS IN THE CASE OF BIG DATA
    6. CASE STUDIES
    7. LESSONS LEARNED
    8. FUTURE TRENDS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  37. Chapter 30: Big Data Mining and Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  38. Chapter 31: Big Data Problem, Technologies and Solutions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. HADOOP AND MAPREDUCE
    4. BIG DATA ON CLOUD COMPUTNG
    5. BIG DATA SOLUTIONS
    6. REAL WORLD APPLICATIONS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  39. Chapter 32: Big Data Techniques and Applications
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  40. Chapter 33: Bio-Inspired Modelling to Generate Alternatives
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  41. Chapter 34: Business Case Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. TECHNIQUES AND DELIVERABLES
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  42. Chapter 35: Business Intelligence through Analytics and Foresight
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  43. Chapter 36: Business Model Innovation and the Balanced Scorecard
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  44. Chapter 37: Business Processes, Dynamic Contexts, Learning
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PROCESSES
    4. STRUCTURING MACHINE LEARNING
    5. STATIC VS. DYNAMIC LEARNING
    6. MACHINE LEARNING IN THE VIEW OF BUSINESS
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  45. Chapter 38: Business Successes of Malaysian Housing Developers
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE SUBJECT
    4. FUTURE TRENDS AND STUDIES
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND THEIR DEFINITIONS
  46. Chapter 39: Centralize vs. Decentralize Supply Chain Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  47. Chapter 40: Chaos in Economics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  48. Chapter 41: Class-Based Weighted NB for Text Categorization
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  49. Chapter 42: Class-Dependent Principal Component Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  50. Chapter 43: Composite Classifiers for Bankruptcy Prediction
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS: HYBRID AND ENSEMBLE CLASSIFIERS FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  51. Chapter 44: Computational Intelligence in Survival Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  52. Chapter 45: Concept-Oriented Model
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. PRINCIPLES AND STRUCTURE OF THE MODEL
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  53. Chapter 46: Concept-Oriented Query Language
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. CONCEPTS AND INCLUSION RELATION
    4. DATA MANIPULATION AND ANALYSIS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  54. Chapter 47: Constrained Nonlinear Optimization in Business
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  55. Chapter 48: Copula-Based Multivariate Time Series Models
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  56. Chapter 49: Credit Scoring in the Age of Big Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  57. Chapter 50: Cuckoo Search Algorithm
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  58. Chapter 51: Customer Lifetime Value Measurement using Machine Learning Techniques
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. METHODOLOGY: ESTIMATE FUTURE CLV
    5. RESULTS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  59. Chapter 52: Cyber Physical Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  60. Chapter 53: Data Envelopment Analysis for Operational Efficiency
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. LITERATURE REVIEW OF DEA
    3. UNIQUENESS OF DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS
    4. MAIN FOCUS: DATA ENVELOPMENT CONCEPTS AND METHODS
    5. ILLUSTRATION OF DEA WITH ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIONS DATA
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  61. Chapter 54: Data Guided Public Healthcare Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF DECISION MAKING
    4. AN EXAMPLE OF A HOSPITAL’S DECISION DURING BIOTERRORISM
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  62. Chapter 55: Data Mining Applications in a Medical System
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DATA COLLECTION
    3. THE PROPOSED APPROCH
    4. DECISION TREE ALGORITHMS
    5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  63. Chapter 56: Data Mining Applications in Accounting and Finance
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READINGS
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  64. Chapter 57: Data Mining for Business Analytics in Retail
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. NEW CHALLENGES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  65. Chapter 58: Data Mining through Modelling in Irrigation Commands
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  66. Chapter 59: Data Mining Tools
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  67. Chapter 60: Data Mining Tools
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  68. Chapter 61: Data Stream Mining
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  69. Chapter 62: Database Techniques for Multi Cores and Big Memory
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  70. Chapter 63: Data-Driven Simulation-Based Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. CLASSIFICATION AND REGRESSION TREES
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. APPENDIX
  71. Chapter 64: Decision Making Methods
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  72. Chapter 65: Decision Support Systems in Business
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. UNDERSTANDING AND EVALUATING A DSS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  73. Chapter 66: Defining a Business-Driven Optimization Problem
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  74. Chapter 67: Design Configuration in Industrialized House Building
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    3. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
    4. IMPLEMENTATION OF RESULTS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  75. Chapter 68: Designing Supply Chains Using Optimization
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SOLUTIONS USING APPROXIMATE ALGORITHMS
    4. EXPERIMENTS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  76. Chapter 69: Digital Watermarking Techniques for Images
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. REVIEW METHODLOGY
    4. BACKGROUND
    5. MAIN FOCUS
    6. INSIGHTS INTO THE REVIEW
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSIONS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINTIONS
  77. Chapter 70: Disaggregate Model to Forecast Transformer Usage
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DATA PREPARATION
    3. MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION
    4. MODEL VALIDATION
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  78. Chapter 71: Distributed Programming Models for Big Data Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. MAP REDUCE BASED MODELS
    5. MAP REDUCE VARIANTS
    6. COMPARISON OF PROGRAMMING MODELS
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  79. Chapter 72: Economic Value Added
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  80. Chapter 73: Efficient High Dimensional Data Classification
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  81. Chapter 74: Emergence of NoSQL Platforms for Big Data Needs
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. NOSQL MOVEMENT
    5. CAP THEOREM SUPPORTING NOSQL COMMUNITY
    6. NOSQL BIG DATA PLATFOMS
    7. ASTERIX: ANOTHER PLATFORM FOR BIG DATA
    8. THE SMAQ STACK FOR BIG DATA
    9. RECOMMENDATIONS
    10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
    13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  82. Chapter 75: Empirical Approaches to Assess Manufacturing Agility
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. LITERATURE REVIEW
    3. A FRAMEWORK TO ASSESS AGILITY
    4. ASSESSMENT OF THE ENABLERS OF AGILITY IN MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATIONS
    5. ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
    6. OBJECTIVATED AGILITY REALIZATION MODEL(OARM)
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  83. Chapter 76: Empirical Likelihood-Based Method for LME Models
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. MAIN FOCUS
    3. SIMULATION STUDIES
    4. APPLICATION: A REAL STUDY
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  84. Chapter 77: Ensuring QoS Over Wireless Channels for E-Learning
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  85. Chapter 78: Equilibria for Traffic Network with Capacity Constraints
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. EQUILIBRIUM
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  86. Chapter 79: Estimating Risk with Copulas
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  87. Chapter 80: Ethical Issues of Qualitative Research
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. CONCERNED PARTIES, RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
    5. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ETHICS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
    6. EVALUATION RESEARCH
    7. RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND ETHICS
    8. ETHICS RELATED TO FIELD WORK
    9. FUTURE TRENDS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
    12. ADDITIONAL READING SECTION
    13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  88. Chapter 81: Evaluating Cyber Attacks in Rail Transit
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  89. Chapter 82: Evaluating the Risks of Technological Evolutions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. PRELIMINARY DEBATE
    3. THE TECHONOLOGY OF SCIENCE
    4. TECHNOLOGY AND RISK
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
  90. Chapter 83: Evolution of Simulation Paradigms in OR
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. CO-EVOLUTION OF SOCIO-ECONOMY AND SIMULATION PARADIGMS
    3. AGENT-BASED SIMULATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS
    4. DEBATES ON AGENT-BASED SIMULATION IN OPERATIONAL RESEARCH COMMUNITY
    5. FUTURE TREND
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  91. Chapter 84: Excavating Business Intelligence from Social Media
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. EXCAVATION-BASED BI
    4. A CASE STUDY OF THREE GREEK TELECOMMUNICATION COMPANIES
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  92. Chapter 85: Explaining Predictive Model Decisions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  93. Chapter 86: FGP for Chance Constrained Fractional MODM Problem
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MODEL FORMULATION
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  94. Chapter 87: FGP Model for Emission-Economic Power Dispatch
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FGP PROBLEM FORMULATION
    4. MODEL FORMULATION OF EEPD PROBLEM
    5. A DEMONSTRATIVE CASE EXAMPLE
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  95. Chapter 88: Finite Automata Games
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THE FINITE AUTOMATA GAME
    3. COMPUTING THE BEST RESPONSE AUTOMATON
    4. EQUILIBRIUM IN AUTOMATA GAMES
    5. AUTOMATA INFERENCE
    6. AUTOMATA DYNAMICS
    7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  96. Chapter 89: Freshness Management in the Retail Business
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MODEL
    4. EXTENSION OF THE MODEL
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. APPENDIX
  97. Chapter 90: Fuzzy MCDM Approach for Make or Buy Decision Problem
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAKE OR BUY DECISION PROCESS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  98. Chapter 91: Fuzzy Scale Table
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION OF A SCALE TABLE
    4. DISCUSSION
    5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  99. Chapter 92: Fuzzy-Rough Data Mining
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  100. Chapter 93: GA Based FGP for Resource Allocation in Farming
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. FARM PLANNING PROBLEM FORMULATION
    4. AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: A CASE STUDY
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  101. Chapter 94: GA Based FGP to Solve BLP Model of EEPGD Problem
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. DESCRIPTION OF EEPGD PROBLEM
    4. BLPP FORMULATION OF EEPGD PROBLEM
    5. GA SCHEME FOR EEPGD PROBLEM
    6. FGP MODEL FORMULATION OF BLEEPGD PROBLEM
    7. A DEMONSTRATIVE CASE EXAMPLE
    8. ILLUSTRATION FOR PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
    9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    10. CONCLUSION
    11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    12. REFERENCES
    13. ADDITIONAL READING
    14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  102. Chapter 95: Game Theoretical Models in New Product Development
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  103. Chapter 96: Game Theory and Supply Chain Networks
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  104. Chapter 97: Game Theory for Cost Allocation in Healthcare
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  105. Chapter 98: Global Induction of Classification and Regression Trees
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. GLOBAL DECISION TREES
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  106. Chapter 99: Global Optimization of Economic and Social Policy
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. LOOKING FOR NEW METRICS EVALUATING THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  107. Chapter 100: Group MCDM Based on the Fuzzy AHP Approach
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  108. Chapter 101: Harnessing the Power of Big Data Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  109. Chapter 102: High-Dimensional Statistical and Data Mining Techniques
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  110. Chapter 103: Hub Location Problems with Allocation Constraints
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  111. Chapter 104: Hybrid SD/DES Simulation for Supply Chain Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  112. Chapter 105: Imbalanced Classification for Business Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  113. Chapter 106: Improving Cache Energy Efficiency for Green Computing
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  114. Chapter 107: Improving Medical Diagnosis
    1. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS
    2. MAIN FOCUS
    3. CONCRETE SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  115. Chapter 108: Improving the Forecasting Process in Project Control
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  116. Chapter 109: In Memory Data Processing Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  117. Chapter 110: Increasing Visibility through Process Mining
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. APPLICATION OF PROCESS MINING IN HEALTHCARE
    5. INTEGRATION FRAMEWORK AND METHOD TO INCREASE PROCESS VISIBILITY
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  118. Chapter 111: Ingredient Branding with Branded Service
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  119. Chapter 112: Input Analysis for Stochastic Simulations
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. STANDARD INPUT MODELING
    3. ADVANCED INPUT MODELING
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  120. Chapter 113: Inventory Models for Deteriorating Items
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE AND CURRENT TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  121. Chapter 114: Integrated Data Mining and Business Intelligence
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  122. Chapter 115: Integrating Ontologies and Bayesian Networks in Big Data Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  123. Chapter 116: Intelligent Agent Technology in Supply Chains
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  124. Chapter 117: Intellectual Property in Mergers & Acquisitions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  125. Chapter 118: Intelligent Risk Detection for Healthcare
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  126. Chapter 119: Intelligent Systems to Support Human Decision Making
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. SUPPORTING HUMAN DECISION MAKING IN THE AGE OF ‘BIG DATA’
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  127. Chapter 120: Internationalization Technology and IPO Firm Growth
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  128. Chapter 121: Isac's Cones in General Vector Spaces
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ISAC’S CONES IN LOCALLY CONVEX SPACES
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  129. Chapter 122: KD-Tree Based Clustering for Gene Expression Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. PROPOSED ALGORITHM
    5. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  130. Chapter 123: Kinked Experience Curve
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  131. Chapter 124: Knowledge Management in Collaborative Business Networks
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  132. Chapter 125: Landscape of Unified Big Data Platforms
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  133. Chapter 126: Large-Scale LP in Business Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  134. Chapter 127: Linear Programming
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  135. Chapter 128: Linkage Discovery with Glossaries
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  136. Chapter 129: Machine Learning Techniques to Predict Software Defect
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. OVERVIEW OF THE TECHNIQUES APPLIED
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
    6. FUTURE DIRECTION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  137. Chapter 130: Management and Telework
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  138. Chapter 131: Management Science for Healthcare Applications
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND: TRADITIONAL MANAGEMENT AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
    3. MAIN FOCUS: SUMMARY OF SOME GENERAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PRINCIPLES
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  139. Chapter 132: Mandatory and Voluntary Adoption of RFID
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THE RESEARCH SETTING
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
    5. DISCUSSION
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  140. Chapter 133: Marketing Decisions with Reference Price Effect
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  141. Chapter 134: Markovian Reliability in Multiple AGV System
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  142. Chapter 135: Mathematical Model for Designing Supply Chains
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. OVERVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
    4. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
    5. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  143. Chapter 136: Mathematical Programming Models for Classification
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE CLASSIFICATION PROBLEM
    4. EXAMPLES
    5. LP MODELS
    6. MIP MODELS
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. ENDNOTES
  144. Chapter 137: MCDA Techniques in Maintenance Policy Selection
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  145. Chapter 138: Measuring Relative Efficiency and Effectiveness
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  146. Chapter 139: Medical Diagnosis A ‘Garbage Can' Perspective
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  147. Chapter 140: Model for Sustainability in Healthcare Organizations
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  148. Chapter 141: Modeling of Maintenance Operations
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. FORMULATIONS OF MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS
    3. MODELING OF SPARE PART REQUIREMENTS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  149. Chapter 142: Multi-Label Classification
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. RELATED TASKS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  150. Chapter 143: Multiobjective Programming
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE MULTIOBJECTIVE PROGRAMMING MODEL AND RELATED CONCEPTS
    4. SOLUTION APPROACHES
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  151. Chapter 144: Multiple-Objective Fractional TP with Impurities
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. APPENDIX A
  152. Chapter 145: New Payment Models and Big Data Analytics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. WHAT IS ACO?
    6. ACO PROGRAMS
    7. FUTURE TRENDS
    8. BIG DATA ANALYTICS
    9. DATA INTEGRATION
    10. POPULATION MANAGEMENT
    11. HEALTH INFORMATION EXCHANGE (HIE)
    12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    13. CONCLUSION
    14. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    15. REFERENCES
    16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  153. Chapter 146: Nonlinear Efficiency in DEA Relative to “Ideal Reference”
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  154. Chapter 147: Nonlinear Programming
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. BASIC THEORETICAL RESULTS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  155. Chapter 148: OLAP Over Probabilistic Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. MODELING PROBABILISTIC DATABASES AND DATA CUBES
    3. ANALYSIS OF STATE-OF-THE-ART PROPOSALS
    4. NOVEL RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  156. Chapter 149: OLAP over Uncertain and Imprecise Data Streams
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. A STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNIQUE FOR OLAPING UNCERTAIN AND IMPRECISE MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATA STREAMS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  157. Chapter 150: OLAP over XLM Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. A SURVEY ON CUBING ALGORITHMS OVER XML DATA SOURCES
    3. OPEN ISSUES AND FUTURE RESEARCH TRENDS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  158. Chapter 151: Online Word-of-Mouth Reviews
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  159. Chapter 152: Optimal Collaborative Design in Supply Chains
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  160. Chapter 153: Optimal Policy for an Unreliable Service System
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  161. Chapter 154: Optimization Approaches to Assess Manufacturing Agility
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. A COMBINED AHP- AND DEA-BASED APPROACH TO MEASURE AGILITY OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS
    3. RESULTS
    4. APPLICATION OF GOAL PROGRAMMING (GP) MODEL TO MANAGE AGILITY
    5. A COMBINED AHP AND ISM BASED MODEL TO ASSESS THE AGILITY OF SUPPLY CHAIN-A CASE STUDY
    6. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF AN AGILE SUPPLY CHAIN USING LINEAR REGRESSION
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  162. Chapter 155: Optimize Short to Long Run Supply Chain Planning
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  163. Chapter 156: Order Statistics in Simulation
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  164. Chapter 157: Outlier Detection in Big Data
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. FINDING OUTLIERS IN BIG DATA
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  165. Chapter 158: Outlier Detection in Multiple Linear Regression
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  166. Chapter 159: Parallelization and Load Balancing Techniques for HPC
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  167. Chapter 160: Pattern Recognition Methods
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  168. Chapter 161: Pattern Warehouse
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RELATED WORKS
    4. MAIN FOCUS: DESIGN OF PATTERN WAREHOUSE
    5. Proposed Modeling of Pattern Warehouse
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  169. Chapter 162: Pattern-Based Approaches for Organizations' Agility
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. ADAPTABILITY
    4. EVENT-DRIVEN PROCESSING
    5. PBS AND OODA COMPARISON
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  170. Chapter 163: Penalized Splines with an Application in Economics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  171. Chapter 164: Performance Evaluation of Mobile Phone Producers
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS
    3. EVALUATING PRODUCTIVITY CHANGE OVERTIME
    4. DESIGN OF EMPIRICAL STUDY AND DATA COLLECTION
    5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS: SALES AND R&D PERSPECTIVE
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  172. Chapter 165: Performance Measures and RTB Optimization
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. METHOD
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. APPENDIX: EXAMPLE TO CALCULATE , AND
  173. Chapter 166: Personalized Meta Actions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. PRELEMINARIES
    3. PROBLEM DEFINITION
    4. PROPOSED APPROACH
    5. EXAMPLE ILLUSTRATION
    6. OBJECTS AND META-ACTIONS GROUPING
    7. SIDE EFFECTS BASED OBJECT GROUPING
    8. MATRIX BASED META-ACTION GROUPING
    9. INCREMENTAL STUDY
    10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
    13. ADDITIONAL READING
    14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. ENDNOTES
  174. Chapter 167: Portfolio Optimization using Rank Correlation
    1. Abstract
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. PORTFOLIO RISK OPTIMIZATION
    5. COMPUTATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    6. ANALYSIS OF DAILY AND MONTHLY PORTFOLIO MODELS
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  175. Chapter 168: Portfolio Procurement in Supply Chain Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  176. Chapter 169: Privacy Preserving OLAP Data Cubes
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BALANCING ACCURACY AND PRIVACY OF OLAP AGGREGATIONS ON DATA CUBES
    3. A SECURE MULTIPARTY COMPUTATION PRIVACY PRESERVING OLAP FRAMEWORK OVER DISTRIBUTED DATA SOURCES
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  177. Chapter 170: Process Mapping and RFID
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID)
    5. ADOPTION OF RFID IN HEALTHCARE
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  178. Chapter 171: Profit Maximization Modeling for Supply Chain Planning
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. Firm Organization and Accounting
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  179. Chapter 172: Project Appraisal Techniques
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND TO DCF
    3. MAIN FOCUS ON DCF
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN DCF
    5. CONCLUSIONS ON DCF
    6. BACKGROUND TO CBA
    7. MAIN FOCUS ON CBA
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN CBA
    9. CONCLUSIONS ON CBA
    10. BACKGROUND TO MCA
    11. MAIN FOCUS ON MCA
    12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN MCA
    13. CONCLUSIONS ON MCA
    14. CONCLUSIONS TO PROJECT APPRAISAL TECHNIQUES
    15. REFERENCES:
    16. ADDITIONAL READING
    17. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  180. Chapter 173: Project Management for Transformational eGovernment
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  181. Chapter 174: Projects, Routines and Economies of Repetition
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. ROUTINES AND ECONOMIES OF REPETITION
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  182. Chapter 175: Question Answering Systems for Managing Big Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  183. Chapter 176: Queuing Networks for Designing Shared Services
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  184. Chapter 177: Radial Efficiency Measures in Data Envelopment Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DEA Models having Desirable Properties
    3. Desirable Properties of Efficiency Measures and Quasi-input Requirement Set
    4. REFERENCES FOR FURTHER STUDIES
    5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. ENDNOTES
  185. Chapter 178: Randomizing DEA Efficiency Scores with Beta Distribution
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. LITERATURE REVIEW
    4. METHODOLOGY
    5. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  186. Chapter 179: Rational and Intuitive Decision Making Style
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  187. Chapter 180: Recommending Rating Values on Reviews for Designers
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
    4. THE RATING VALUE RECOMMENDATION ON ONLINE REVIEWS
    5. TECHNICAL APPROACH OF REVIEW RECOMMENDATION
    6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND DISCUSSIONS
    7. SUMMARY AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  188. Chapter 181: Reinforcement Learning for Business Modeling
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. The Reinforcement Learning Problem
    3. Dynamic Programming
    4. ARMED BANDIT
    5. TEMPORAL-DIFFERENCES ALGORITHMS
    6. THE Q-LEARNING ALGORITHM
    7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  189. Chapter 182: Relational Data Access for Business Data Analytics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. Row and Column Stores Architecture
    4. Decision on Architecture and Optimization for Data Access
    5. Computational Effort and Data Transfer
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  190. Chapter 183: Revenue Management in the Hotel Industry
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  191. Chapter 184: Reverse Logistics Design with Neural Networks
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  192. Chapter 185: Reverse Logistics Network Design Literature Review
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  193. Chapter 186: RIP Technique for Frequent Itemset Mining
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. DESCRIPTION AND EXAMPLE
    5. RIP ALGORITHM
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  194. Chapter 187: Risk and Risk Aversion in Supply Chain Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. LITERATURE REVIEW
    3. SUPPLY CHAIN RISK
    4. RISK-SENSITIVE DECISION CRITERIA
    5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  195. Chapter 188: Robust Supply Chain Risk Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. SUPPLY CHAIN DISRUPTION RISKS
    3. ROBUST SUPPLY CHAIN DISRUPTION RISK MANAGEMENT
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  196. Chapter 189: ROC Analysis in Business Decision-makings
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  197. Chapter 190: Scientific Workflows for Game Analytics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. A BRIEF BACKGROUND ON WORKFLOWS
    4. USING WORKFLOWS TO ANALYZE GAMES
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  198. Chapter 191: Segmenting Big Data Time Series Stream Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  199. Chapter 192: Semantic Document Networks to Support Concept Retrieval
    1. Abstract
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. CONCEPT RETRIEVAL WITH SEMANTIC DOCUMENT NETWORKS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  200. Chapter 193: Sentiment Analysis in Supply Chain Management
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE ARTICLE
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. FURTHER READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  201. Chapter 194: Simulation Optimization and a Case Study
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. Gradient-Based Simulation Optimization AND Commercial Software Packages
    4. COMMERCIAL SOFTWARE PACKAGES FOR SO
    5. Operating Policy Optimization in the Receiving Area of a Warehouse: A Case Study
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  202. Chapter 195: Simulation Optimization for Finite Parameter Space
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MULTIPLE COMPARISONS AND RANKING AND SELECTION PROCEDURES
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  203. Chapter 196: Simulation Optimization via Metamodeling Approach
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. METAMODELING SOLUTION PROCEDURES
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  204. Chapter 197: Six Sigma Innovation and Design
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. SIX SIGMA STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  205. Chapter 198: Small-Data Analytical Culture Analytics in ERP
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE RICH CONTROVERSY OF THE RICH STORY
    4. RESOLVING THE CONTROVERSY
    5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  206. Chapter 199: Social Capital in Technology-Based Firms
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  207. Chapter 200: Social Network Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FURTHER TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  208. Chapter 201: Social-Ecological Innovation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. EMBEDDING SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL INNOVATION STRATEGY AND PERFORMANCE
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  209. Chapter 202: Solutions for Integrated Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  210. Chapter 203: Spatial Data Analysis Using Kernel Density Tools
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. THE USE OF DENSITY ANALYSIS IN EMPIRICAL STUDIES
    3. TYPES OF DENSITY ESTIMATES
    4. KD CALCULATION
    5. KERNEL DENSITY VS. OTHER TECHNIQUES OF SPATIAL SMOOTHING
    6. DOUBLE KERNEL DENSITY (DKD) ESTIMATES
    7. STAGES OF DKD CALCULATION
    8. CANCER MORBIDITY AND AIR POLLUTION IN HAIFA AS A CASE-STUDY
    9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. CONCLUSION
    12. REFERENCES
    13. ADDITIONAL READING
    14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  211. Chapter 204: Stochastic Frontier Analysis and Cancer Survivability
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND OF THE STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS
    3. STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS CONCEPTS AND TOOLS
    4. ILLUSTRATION WITH SURVIVAL FROM MELANOMA CANCER
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  212. Chapter 205: Stochastic Logistics Network Design with Deadlines
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  213. Chapter 206: Stochastic Models for Cash-Flow Management in SME
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FURTHER INDUSTRY APPLICATION
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  214. Chapter 207: Stochastic Programming and Value Based Decisions
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  215. Chapter 208: Stock Counting System Using PDA
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. SOFTWARE DESIGN AND HARDWARE SELECTION
    5. EVALUATION
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  216. Chapter 209: Stress Testing for Insolvency
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. DEFINITIONS
    3. LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR STRESS TESTING CORPORATIONS AND MUNICIPALITIES
    4. THE PROCESS FOR STRESS TESTING CORPORATIONS
    5. THE CASE FOR STRESS TESTING MUNICIPALITIES
    6. A CORPORATE STRESS TEST STUDY
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  217. Chapter 210: Supply Chain Collaboration
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. COLLABORATION MATURITY MODEL
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  218. Chapter 211: Supply Chain Analytics in the Era of Big Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  219. Chapter 212: Supply Chain Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. EVOLUTION OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN SCM
    3. SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYTICS
    4. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES
    5. INDUSTRY EXAMPLES
    6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. APPENDIX A: SOURCES FOR INDUSTRY EXAMPLES
  220. Chapter 213: Supply Chain Integration, Collaboration, and Coordination
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. ISSUES
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  221. Chapter 214: Supply Chain Process Modeling for Manufacturing Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  222. Chapter 215: Support Vector Machine Models for Classification
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CLASSIFICATION USING KERNELS
    4. A SVM MODEL FOR TWO-CLASS CLASSIFICATION
    5. A SVM MODEL FOR MULTI-CLASS CLASSIFICATION
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  223. Chapter 216: Survey of DSS Development Methodologies
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. COMPARATIVE STUDIES
    3. REVIEW OF DSS DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES
    4. ANALYSES OF METHODOLOGIES
    5. THE REQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF SDM FOR BUILDING DSS
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  224. Chapter 217: Sustainable (Green) Initiatives in Corporations
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINABLE ISSUES
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  225. Chapter 218: Sustainable Enterprise Excellence
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. SUSTAINABLE ENTERPRISE EXCELLENCE
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  226. Chapter 219: Taxonomy Outline of Big Data Analytics Literature
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. STEPS OF BIG DATA ANALYTICS
    3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    4. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK
    5. CLASSIFICATION RESULTS
    6. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
    7. LIMITATIONS
    8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    9. REFERENCES
    10. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  227. Chapter 220: Teaching a Data Mining Course to MBA Students
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  228. Chapter 221: Teaching and Using Analytics in Management Education
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ANALYTICS IN MANAGEMENT EDUCATION
    3. CURRICULUM DESIGN
    4. IMPLEMENTATION
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. APPENDIX A
  229. Chapter 222: The Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  230. Chapter 223: The Cosine Similarity in Terms of the Euclidean Distance
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  231. Chapter 224: The E-Commerce Business Model Implementation
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. A FRAMEWORK FOR E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODEL IMPLEMENTATION
    4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  232. Chapter 225: The Practice of Structural Equation Modeling
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  233. Chapter 226: TOPSIS in Business Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER: TOPSIS
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  234. Chapter 227: Tourism Knowledge Destination
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. THE KNOWLEDGE DESTINATION ARCHITECTURE
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  235. Chapter 228: Traffic Signal Timing Optimization Analysis and Practice
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  236. Chapter 229: Transportation Network Optimization
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  237. Chapter 230: Trust and Technology Acceptance on Mobile Banking
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
    5. DATA ANLYSIS AND RESULTS
    6. FUTURE TRENDS
    7. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  238. Chapter 231: Unconstrained Optimization in Business Analytics
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  239. Chapter 232: Utility Function
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. SUBSEQUENT AND FUTURE TRENDS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  240. Chapter 233: Utility Functions and Risk Attitudes in Decision Analysis
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. RISK AVERSION MEASURE
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  241. Chapter 234: Value Based Decision Control for Complex Systems
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  242. Chapter 235: Vertical Integration in Telecoms
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. IS SEPARATION COSTLY IN TERMS OF LOST ECONOMIES OF SCOPE?
    4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  243. Chapter 236: Visualization of High Dimensional Data
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  244. Chapter 237: Watermarking Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. INSIGHTS INTO THE REVIEW
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  245. Chapter 238: Watermarking Using Intelligent Methods
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. INSIGHTS INTO THE REVIEW
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH AND CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  246. Chapter 239: Web Page Classification Using MDAWkNN
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  247. Chapter 240: Web Service Composition for Tourism Information
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUNDS
    4. WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION ARCHITECTURE
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  248. Chapter 241: Weighting Imputation for Categorical Data
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SAMPLING WEIGHTS AND MISSING GROUP/ BACKGROUND MEMBERSHIP
    4. LVQ-ESW ALGORITHM
    5. METHODOLOGY
    6. SIMULATION RESULTS
    7. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. APPENDIX A
    12. APPENDIX B
  249. Chapter 242: Weights and Multi-Edges in Link Prediction
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. MAIN FOCUS
    4. FUTURE TRENDS
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. ADDITIONAL READING
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  250. Chapter 243: What Would Cloud Computing Learn from Quantum Mechanics
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS
    5. FUTURE TRENDS
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    7. REFERENCES
    8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. ENDNOTES
  251. Chapter 244: WikOLAP
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND
    3. CASE STUDY
    4. WIKIOLAP SYSTEM
    5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. ENDNOTES
  252. About the Contributors